Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder in
which neurological basis is largely unknown. The Corpus Callosum (CC) is the main commissure
that connects the cerebral hemispheres. Previous evidence suggests the involvement of the CC in
the pathophysiology of autism.
Aim: The aim of our study is to assess whether there were any changes in Corpus Callosum (CC)
area and volume and to reveal the relationship between Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) features in
genu and splenium of corpus callosum in children with ASD.
Methods: Eighteen patient and 15 controls were recruited. The volumetric sagittal TI images were
used to provide measurements of midsagittal corpus callosum surface area while FA, MD, RD, and
ADC values were extracted from genu and splenium of corpus callosum after which the correlation
in the area and volume in ASD children was examined.
Results: CC area and volume in children with ASD were decreased than controls. FA values obtained
from the genu and splenum of CC were significantly lower and RD values were significantly
higher. A positive correlation was observed between the FA of the genu and splenium and area and
volume of the CC. There was a negative correlation between ADC, MD and RD of CC and area
and volume measurements.
Conclusion: The conclusions in the interrelations of morphometric and DTI data may demonstrate
a likelihood of damages in the axons and cortical neurons. The results showed that there existed
microstructural damages from the DTI findings. Furthermore, the decrease in FA could be a representation
of the reduction in the myelination in nerve pathways, impaired integrity, reduced axonal
density, and organization. Indeed, the changes in volumetric and microstructural of CC could be
useful in evaluating underlying pathophysiology in children with autism.