Treatment of Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis in Farm Ruminants: State of Knowledge and Future Trends

Author(s): Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez, Patricia Vázquez, Ignacio Ferre, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora*.

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 18 , Issue 15 , 2018

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Abstract:

Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are closely related protozoan diseases that lead to important economic impacts in farm ruminants. Toxoplasma gondii infection mainly causes reproductive failure in small ruminants and is a widespread zoonosis, whereas Neospora caninum infection is one of the most important causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. Vaccination has been considered the most economic measure for controlling these diseases. However, despite vaccine development efforts, only a liveattenuated T. gondii vaccine has been licensed for veterinary use, and no promising vaccines against neosporosis have been developed; therefore, vaccine development remains a key goal. Additionally, drug therapy could be a valuable strategy for disease control in farm ruminants, as several drugs that limit T. gondii and N. caninum proliferation and dissemination have been evaluated. This approach may also be relevant to performing an initial drug screening for potential human therapy for zoonotic parasites. Treatments can be applied against infections in adult ruminants to minimize the outcomes of a primo-infection or the reactivation of a chronic infection during gestation or in newborn ruminants to avoid infection chronification. In this review, the current status of drug development against toxoplasmosis and neosporosis in farm ruminants is presented, and in an effort to promote additional treatment options, prospective drugs that have shown efficacy in vitro and in laboratory animal models of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are examined.

Keywords: Toxoplasma, Neospora, Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Chemotherapy, Chemoprophylaxis.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 15
Year: 2018
Page: [1304 - 1323]
Pages: 20
DOI: 10.2174/1568026618666181002113617

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