Recent Advances in Anesthesiology

Recent Advances in Anesthesiology

Volume: 1

Anesthesia: Essential Clinical Updates for Practitioners – Regional, Ultrasound, Coagulation, Obstetrics, and Pediatrics

This book provides a quick update on key aspects of current anesthesia practice. Book chapters are written in a concise manner to enable readers (anesthesia providers and medical students) to quickly ...
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Lower Extremity Blocks

Pp. 57-79 (23)

Roy Greengrass and Arun Kalava

Abstract

Lower extremity blocks provide anesthesia and analgesia for a variety of orthopedic, vascular and cosmetic procedures involving the hip, the thigh, the knee, the leg, the ankle and the foot. Lower extremity blocks include the femoral nerve block, (FNB), the sciatic nerve block, the popliteal sciatic nerve block, the saphenous nerve block, the posterior lumbar plexus block and the ankle block. A combination of lumbar plexus and sciatic block provides complete anesthesia of the lower extremity. The femoral nerve block is among the easiest, safest, and the most successful blocks to master. This block can provide analgesia for a fractured hip, a femoral fracture, knee arthroplasty and the harvesting of skin from the thigh. The popliteal block when combined with the saphenous block provides complete anesthesia below the knee. When the ankle block is performed above the malleoli, complete anesthesia of the foot can be achieved. The use of regional-lower extremity blocks helps to avoid the risks of general or neuroaxial anesthesia especially for those who are frail, debilitated, with multiple co-morbidities and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, lower extremities blocks can provide significant post-operative analgesia. The blocks maybe performed with the use of the ultrasound or with peripheral nerve stimulation.

Keywords:

Adductor canal block, Ankle block, Femoral nerve blocks, Lower extremity blocks, Lumbar plexus block, Popliteal block, Saphenous nerve block, Sciatic nerve block.

Affiliation:

Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.