Pp. 1-22 (22)
Trauma is one of the primary causes of death for patients under the age of
44. Traumatic injuries are “time sensitive” where initial interventions are based on
physiological derangements, and classical signs and symptoms which commonly occur
based on the mechanism and pattern of injury. The primary survey focuses on
maintaining life with the assessment of airway, breathing, circulation with hemorrhage
control, and evaluation of neurological disability. Once exposure is obtained and the
patient is stabilized, a detailed history is obtained and a complete physical examination
must be done. This is the secondary survey. Thoracic injury, abdominal, pelvic and
extremity injury are evaluated as well as the possibility of traumatic brain injury. The
initial management of acute traumatic shock follows well established guidelines with
the principle focus being damage control in order to optimize the patient’s likelihood of
a successful outcome.
Abdominal compartment syndrome, Adult Trauma Life Support
(ATLS), Airway, Damage control, Glascow Coma Scale (GCS), Hemorrhage
control, Primary survey, Secondary survey, Shock, Trauma, Triad of hypothermia,
coagulopathy and acidosis.
University Hospitals Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.