Cameroon is blessed with a vast potential of energy resources. However, their level of
valorization is deplorable causing acute energy challenges. Consequently, most Cameroonians, mainly
rural dwellers are dependent on traditional biomass and petroleum products for their basic energy
needs despite their associated adverse health and the environmental impacts. Thus, there is a need for
alternative, affordable and reliable energy sources to meet this energy gap. This study, therefore, reviews
and assesses the prospects and sustainability of biogas production in Cameroon. To achieve
this, a brief overview of the energy scenarios in Cameroon, the fundamentals of biogas production,
and an assessment of the biogas resource potential of the country is carried out. Crop residues were
found to be the most valuable biogas substrates in the country with an annual production capacity of
415.57 x 106 m3 compared to 10.52 x 106 m3 capacity from animal manure. This study also shows a
promising future for biogas production in Cameroon given its vast and omnipresent agricultural feedstocks.
However, the proliferation of this technology in the country is hindered by the lack of appropriate
institutions, policies, regulations, incentives, political will and engagements, technicians and
appropriate funding mechanisms. The promotion of biogas production in Cameroon is currently done
by local and international NGOs with limited state engagements.