Background: We present here the synthesis of 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one (1) and its functionalised analogues,
such as the classical isosteres, glitazone (1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione) (2), rhodanine (2-thioxo-1,3-
thiazolidin-4-one) (3) and pseudothiohydantoin (2-imino-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one) (4) started in the midnineteenth
century to the present day (1865-2018).
Objective: The review focuses on the differences in the representation of the molecular structures discussed
here over time since the first discussions about the structural theory by Kekulé, Couper and Butlerov. Moreover,
advanced synthesis methodologies have been developed for obtaining these functional group, including
green chemistry. We discuss about its structure and stability and we show the great biological potential.
Conclusion: The 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one nucleus and functionalised analogues such as glitazones (1,3-
thiazolidine-2,4-diones), rhodanines (2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones) and pseudothiohydantoins (2-imino-1,3-
thiazolidine-2-4-ones) have great pharmacological importance, and they are already found in commercial
pharmaceuticals. Studies indicate a promising future in the area of medicinal chemistry with potential activities
against different diseases. The synthesis of these nuclei started in the mid-nineteenth century (1865), with the
first discussions about the structural theory by Kekulé, Couper and Butlerov. The present study has demonstrated
the differences in the representations of the molecular structures discussed here over time. Since then,
various synthetic methodologies have been developed for obtaining these nuclei, and several studies on their
structural and biological properties have been performed. Different studies with regards to the green synthesis
of these compounds were also presented here. This is the result of the process of environmental awareness.
Additionally, the planet Earth is already showing clear signs of depletion, which is currently decreasing the
quality of life.