Is Temporomandibular Joint Disc Displacement without Reduction a Plausible Cause of Condylar Hypoplasia? A Case Report

Author(s): Yi-Shu Liu, Adrian U-Jin Yap, Jie Lei, Kai-Yuan Fu*.

Journal Name: Current Dentistry

Volume 1 , Issue 1 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: The causes of mandibular condylar hypoplasia can be congenital or acquired in nature. Cited local causes of acquired hypoplasia include trauma, infection and irradiation. We report a case of hypoplastic condyle that was attributed to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc displacement without reduction (DDwoR).

Clinical Presentation: A 16-year-old male presented with restricted mouth opening and right TMJ pain for 6 months. He was subsequently diagnosed with DDwoR. Conservative treatment comprising self-care and moist-heat therapy was administered and he was followed for 27 months without any further interventions. During this period, transitions from “normal” morphology to condylar flattening / erosion, and eventually a re-modeled smaller “normal” right TMJ were observed.

Conclusion: The present case provided initial support that DDwoR could be a plausible cause of condylar hypoplasia in adolescents / young adults.

Keywords: Temporomandibular disorders, condylar hypoplasia, disc displacement without reduction, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint diseases, condylar remodeling.

[1]
Pirttiniemi P, Peltomaki T, Muller L, et al. Abnormal mandibular growth and the condylar cartilage. Eur J Orthod 2009; 31(1): 1-11.
[2]
de Leeuw R, Klasser G. In: de Leeuw R, Klasser G, Eds Orofacial pain: guidelines for assessment, diagnosis, and management. 5th ed. Chicago: Quintessence 2013; pp. 146-67.
[3]
Poswillo DE, Robinsion P. In: Sarnat BG, Laskin DM, Ed The Temporomandibular joint: A biological basis for clinical practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa, USA: Saunders 1992; pp. 183-206.
[4]
Buchbinder D, Kaplan AS. In: Kaplan AS, Assael LA, Ed temporomandibular disorders diagnosis and treatment. Philadelphia, Pa, USA: Saunders 1991; pp. 11-23.
[5]
Berraquero R, Palacios J. Prenatal growth of the human mandibular condylar cartilage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1995; 108(2): 194-200.
[6]
Tank W, Wright D, Iizuka T. Unilateral dysplasia of the mandibular condyle: Report of a case. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1998; 56(6): 765-9.
[7]
Lee SK, Kim YS, Oh HS, et al. Prenatal development of the human mandible. Anat Rec 2001; 263(3): 314-25.
[8]
Singh DJ, Bartlett SP. Congenital mandibular hypoplasia: analysis and classification. J Craniofac Surg 2005; 16(2): 291-300.
[9]
Kaneyama K, Segami N, Hatta T. Congenital deformities and developmental abnormalities of the mandibular condyle in the temporomandibular joint. Congenit Anom 2008; 48(3): 118-25.
[10]
Chung MT, Levi B, Hyun JS, et al. Pierre robin sequence and treacher collins hypoplastic mandible comparison using three-dimensional morphometric analysis. J Craniofac Surg 2012; 23(1): 1959-63.
[11]
Sapp JP, Cherrick HM. In: Sarnat BG , Laskin DM, Ed The Temporomandibular joint: a biological basis for clinical practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa, USA: Saunders 1992; pp. 150-1.
[12]
Sarnat BG. In: Schwartz L, Chayes CM, Ed Facial pain and mandibular dysfunction. Philadelphia, Pa, USA: Saunders 1969; pp. 83-101.
[13]
Krogstad O. Aplasia of the mandibular condyle. Eur J Orthod 1997; 19(5): 483-9.
[14]
Shibata S, Suda N, Fukada K, et al. Mandibular coronoid process in parathyroid hormone-related protein-deficient mice shows ectopic cartilage formation accompanied by abnormal bone modeling. Anat Embryol 2003; 207(1): 35-44.
[15]
Boutros S, Shetye PR, Ghali S, et al. Morphology and growth of the mandible in crouzon, apert, and pfeiffer syndromes. J Craniofac Surg 2007; 18(1): 146-50.
[16]
Kaban LB. Mandibular asymmetry and the fourth dimension. J Craniofac Surg 2009; 20: 622-31.
[17]
Baek C, Paeng JY, Lee JS, et al. Morphologic evaluation and classification of facial asymmetry using 3-dimensional computed tomography. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012; 270(5): 1161-9.
[18]
Petrikowski CG. In: White SC, Pharoah MJ, Ed Oral radiology: principles and interpretation. 6th ed. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier 2009; pp. 481-4.
[19]
Krisjane Z, Urtane I, Krumina G, et al. The prevalence of TMJ osteoarthritis in asymptomatic patients with dentofacial deformities: a cone-beam CT study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012; 41(6): 690-5.
[20]
Schiffman E, Ohrbach R, Truelove E, et al. Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) for clinical and research applications: recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network* and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Groupy. J Oral Facial Pain Headache 2014; 28(1): 6-27.
[21]
Manfredini D, Guarda-Nardini L, Winocur E, et al. Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of axis I epidemiologic findings. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011; 112(4): 453-2.
[22]
Stegenga B, de Bont LG, Boering G, et al. Tissue responses to degenerative changes in the temporomandibular joint: a review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1991; 49(10): 1079-88.
[23]
Takatsuka S, Yoshida K, Ueki K, et al. Disc and condyle translation in patients with temporomandibular disorder. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2005; 99(5): 614-21.
[24]
Campos MI, Campos PS, Cangussu MC, et al. Analysis of magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and pain in temporomandibular joints with and without degenerative changes of the condyle. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2008; 37(6): 529-34.
[25]
Cortés D, Exss E, Marholz C, et al. Association between disk position and degenerative bone changes of the temporomandibular joints: an imaging study in subjects with TMD. Cranio 2011; 29(2): 117-26.
[26]
Dias IM, Coelho PR, Picorelli Assis NM, et al. Evaluation of the correlation between disc displacements and degenerative bone changes of the temporomandibular joint by means of magnetic resonance images. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2012; 41(9): 1051-7.
[27]
Gil C, Santos KC, Dutra ME, et al. MRI analysis of the relationship between bone changes in the temporomandibular joint and articular disc position in symptomatic patients. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2012; 41(5): 367-72.
[28]
de Melo DP, Sousa Melo SL, de Andrade Freitas Oliveira LS, et al. Evaluation of temporomandibular joint disk displacement and its correlation with pain and osseous abnormalities in symptomatic young patients with magnetic resonance imaging. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2015; 119(1): 107-12.
[29]
Lei J, Han J, Liu M, et al. Degenerative temporomandibular joint changes associated with recent-onset disc displacement without reduction in adolescents and young adults. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2017; 45(3): 408-13.
[30]
de Farias JF, Melo SL, Bento PM, et al. Correlation between temporomandibular joint morphology and disk displacement by MRI. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2015; 44(7): 20150023.
[31]
Manfredini D, Segù M, Arveda N, et al. temporomandibular joint disorders in patients with different facial morphology. a systematic review of the literature. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2015; 74(1): 29-46.
[32]
Hu YK, Yang C, Cai XY, et al. Does condylar height decrease more in temporomandibular joint nonreducing disc displacement than reducing disc displacement?: A magnetic resonance imaging retrospective study. Medicine 2016; 95(35): e4715.
[33]
Wang XD, Zhang JN, Gan YH, et al. Current understanding of pathogenesis and treatment of TMJ osteoarthritis. J Dent Res 2015; 94(5): 666-73.
[34]
Fu KY, Zhang WL, Liu DG, et al. Cone beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint osteoarthrosis. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2007; 42(7): 417-20.
[35]
Koyama J, Nishiyama H, Hayashi T. Follow-up study of condylar bony changes using helical computed tomography in patients with temporomandibular disorder. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2007; 36(8): 472-7.
[36]
Alexiou K, Stamatakis H, Tsiklakis K. Evaluation of the severity of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritic changes related to age using cone beam computed tomography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2009; 38(3): 141-7.
[37]
Zhao YP, Zhang ZY, Wu YT, et al. Investigation of the clinical and radiographic features of osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joints in adolescents and young adults. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011; 111(2): e27-34.
[38]
Nebbe B, Major PW, Prasad NG, et al. TMJ internal derangement and adolescent craniofacial morphology: a pilot study. Angle Orthod 1997; 67(6): 407-14.
[39]
Nebbe B, Major PW, Prasad NG. Adolescent female craniofacial morphology associated with advanced bilateral TMJ disc displacement. Eur J Orthod 1998; 20(6): 701-12.
[40]
Nebbe B, Major PW, Prasad N. Female adolescent facial pattern associated with TMJ disk displacement and reduction in disk length: part I. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1999; 116(2): 168-76.
[41]
Gidarakou IK, Tallents RH, Kyrkanides S, et al. Comparison of skeletal and dental morphology in asymptomatic volunteers and symptomatic patients with bilateral disk displacement with reduction. Angle Orthod 2002; 72(6): 541-6.
[42]
Gidarakou IK, Tallents RH, Kyrkanides S, et al. Comparison of skeletal and dental morphology in asymptomatic volunteers and symptomatic patients with unilateral disk displacement without reduction. Angle Orthod 2003; 73(2): 121-7.
[43]
Gidarakou IK, Tallents RH, Kyrkanides S, et al. Comparison of skeletal and dental morphology in asymptomatic volunteers and symptomatic patients with normal temporomandibular joints. Angle Orthod 2003; 73(2): 116-20.
[44]
Gidarakou IK, Tallents RH, Kyrkanides S, et al. Comparison of skeletal and dental morphology in asymptomatic volunteers and symptomatic patients with bilateral disk displacement without reduction. Angle Orthod 2004; 74(5): 684-90.
[45]
Gidarakou IK, Tallents RH, Kyrkanides S, et al. Comparison of skeletal and dental morphology in asymptomatic volunteers and symptomatic patients with unilateral disk displacement with reduction. Angle Orthod 2004; 74(2): 212-9.
[46]
Kurita H, Ohtsuka A, Kobayashi H, et al. Alteration of the horizontal mandibular condyle size associated with temporomandibular joint internal derangement in adult females. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2002; 31(6): 373-8.
[47]
Hasegawa H, Saitoh I, Nakakura-Ohshima K, et al. Condylar shape in relation to anterior disk displacement in juvenile females. Cranio 2011; 29(2): 100-10.
[48]
Thilander B, Carlsson GE, Ingervall B. Postnatal development of the human temporomandibular joint I. A histological study. Acta Odontol Scand 1976; 34(2): 117-26.
[49]
Twilt M, Van der Giesen E, Mobers SM, et al. Abrupt condylar destruction of the mandibula in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 2003; 62(4): 366-7.
[50]
Lei J, Liu MQ, Yap AU, et al. Condylar subchondral formation of cortical bone in adolescents and young adults. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013; 51(1): 63-8.
[51]
Nanci A. Ten Cate’s oral histology: development, structure, and function. 8th ed. St.Louis, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier 2013.
[52]
Kurita K, Westesson PL, Yuasa H, et al. Natural course of untreated symptomatic temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction. J Dent Res 1998; 77(2): 361-5.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as


Article Details

VOLUME: 1
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2019
Page: [68 - 73]
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/2542579X01666180919121059

Article Metrics

PDF: 18
HTML: 1