Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main reason of lifelong disability and casualty worldwide. In the United State alone, 1.7 million traumatic events occur yearly, out of which 50,000 results in deaths. Injury to the brain could alter various biological signaling pathways such as excitotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis which can result in various neurological disorders such as Psychosis, Depression, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, etc. In literature, various reports have indicated the alteration of these pathways after traumatic brain injury but the exact mechanism is still unclear. Thus, in the first part of this article, we have tried to summarize TBI as a modulator of various neuronal signaling pathways. Currently, very few drugs are available in the market for the treatment of TBI and these drugs only provide the supportive care. Thus, in the second part of the article, based on TBI altered signaling pathways, we have tried to find out potential targets and promising therapeutic approaches in the treatment of TBI.