Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exhibits no defined aetiology.
However, factors such as genetic and nitro-oxidative stress are associated with chronic inflammation
and IBD progression to colorectal cancer (CRC). The present review discusses the
association of nitro-oxidative stress, inflammation and advanced glycation end products
(AGE) and its corresponding receptor (RAGE) in IBD and examines the connection between
these factors and nuclear factors, such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), factor-erythroid 2-
related factor-2 (Nrf2), and p53 mutant (p53M).
Methods: We searched the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science databases using a
combination of the following terms: IBD, CRC, oxidative stress, inflammation, NF-κB, Nrf2,
p53M, AGE and RAGE.
Results: Oxidative stress and inflammation activated two cellular pathways, the nuclear expression
of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant and pro-oncogenic genes based on NF-κB and
p53M, which is associated with NF-κB activation, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and
the expression of pro-oncogenic genes. Nrf2 stimulates the nuclear expression of enzymatic
and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems and anti-inflammatory genes, and is inhibited by
chronic oxidative stress, NF-κB and p53M. AGE/RAGE are involved in inflammation progression
because RAGE polymorphisms and increased RAGE levels are found in IBD patients.
Alterations of these pathways in combination with oxidative damage are responsible
for IBD symptoms and the progression to CRC.
Conclusion: IBD is an inflammatory and nitro-oxidative stress-based bowel disease. Achieving
a molecular understanding of the biochemical events and their complicated interactions
will impact basic and applied research, animal models, and clinical trials.