Therapeutic Approaches for the Management of Sleep Disorders in Geriatric Population

Author(s): Mireille Salas-Crisóstomo, Pablo Torterolo, André Barciela Veras, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Sérgio Machado, Eric Murillo-Rodríguez*.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 25 , 2019

Abstract:

Objective: Aging is a natural biological phenomenon that occurs in human beings. With increasing of age, there is an appearance of deleterious changes related to progression onto pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, hearing and vision impairments, as well as sleep disorders. It is important to recognize that some sleep disturbances reported by aged subjects include insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, among others. Moreover, accumulating evidence indicates that coexistence of medical issues with sleep disorders constitutes clinical challenges for treatment of comorbidities in elderly. Here, we have attempted to review and summarize the available literature that assesses the sleep disturbances in aging. In addition, we highlight the management of sleep disorders associated with aging. Due to the particular health condition of aged adults, the development of effective pharmacological interventions for sleep disorders treatment in aging is warranted.

Methods: Review of studies retrieved from the PubMed.

Results: The sleep-wake cycle includes abnormalities classified as sleep disorders. Comorbidity between sleep disturbances and aging-related health issues will represent a public health challenge to be addressed in the near future. Moreover, this scenario will suggest an area that requires further drug investigation and design of new pharmacological and pharmaceutical strategies to treat sleep disorders in the elderly population.

Conclusion: The review highlights the sleep disturbances in aging. We focus on current knowledge in medicinal chemistry and further design of new treatments tools for managing sleep disturbances in the aged population.

Keywords: Aging, insomnia, depression, slow wave sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, REM sleep.

[1]
World Health Organization. Global Health and Aging. National Institute on Aging National Institutes of Health U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. USA. NIH Publication no 11-7737. 2011.
[2]
United Nations. Report of the Second World Assembly on Aging., 2002, 8-12.
[3]
Kinsella, K.; Velkoff, V.U.S. Census Bureau; , 2001.
[4]
U.S. Census Bureau. International database., http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/natdet-D1A.html
[5]
Ferrucci, L.; Giallauria, F.; Guralnik, J.M. Epidemiology of aging. Radiol. Clin. North Am., 2008, 46(4), 643-652.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rcl.2008.07.005] [PMID: 18922285]
[6]
Dean, G.E.; Weiss, C.; Morris, J.L.; Chasens, E.R. Impaired sleep: a multifaceted geriatric syndrome. Nurs. Clin. North Am., 2017, 52(3), 387-404.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2017.04.009] [PMID: 28779821]
[7]
Mander, B.A.; Winer, J.R.; Walker, M.P. Sleep and human aging. Neuron, 2017, 94(1), 19-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2017.02.004] [PMID: 28384471]
[8]
Crowley, K. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults. Neuropsychol. Rev., 2011, 21(1), 41-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11065-010-9154-6] [PMID: 21225347]
[9]
Zdanys, K.F.; Steffens, D.C. Sleep disturbances in the elderly. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 2015, 38(4), 723-741.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2015.07.010] [PMID: 26600105]
[10]
Mattis, J.; Sehgal, A. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Disorders of Aging. Trends Endocrinol. Metab., 2016, 27(4), 192-203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2016.02.003] [PMID: 26947521]
[11]
Saper, C.B.; Fuller, P.M. Wake-sleep circuitry: an overview. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 2017, 44, 186-192.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2017.03.021] [PMID: 28577468]
[12]
Scammell, T.E.; Arrigoni, E.; Lipton, J.O. Neural circuitry of wakefulness and sleep. Neuron, 2017, 93(4), 747-765.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2017.01.014] [PMID: 28231463]
[13]
Yasenkov, R.; Deboer, T. Circadian modulation of sleep in rodents. Prog. Brain Res., , 2012, 199, 203-218.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-59427-3.00012-5] [PMID: 22877667]
[14]
Deboer, T. Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of sleep and sleep homeostasis. Curr. Top. Behav. Neurosci., 2015, 25, 1-24.
[PMID: 24142866]
[15]
Schwartz, M.D.; Kilduff, T.S. The neurobiology of sleep and wakefulness. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 2015, 38(4), 615-644.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2015.07.002] [PMID: 26600100]
[16]
Weber, F.; Dan, Y. Circuit-based interrogation of sleep control. Nature, 2016, 538(7623), 51-59.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature19773] [PMID: 27708309]
[17]
Boucetta, S.; Cissé, Y.; Mainville, L.; Morales, M.; Jones, B.E. Discharge profiles across the sleep-waking cycle of identified cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons in the pontomesencephalic tegmentum of the rat. J. Neurosci., 2014, 34(13), 4708-4727.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2617-13.2014] [PMID: 24672016]
[18]
Van Dort, C.J.; Zachs, D.P.; Kenny, J.D.; Zheng, S.; Goldblum, R.R.; Gelwan, N.A.; Ramos, D.M.; Nolan, M.A.; Wang, K.; Weng, F.J.; Lin, Y.; Wilson, M.A.; Brown, E.N. Optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the PPT or LDT induces REM sleep. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2015, 112(2), 584-589.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1423136112] [PMID: 25548191]
[19]
Arias-Carrión, O.; Huitrón-Reséndiz, S.; Arankowsky-Sandoval, G.; Murillo-Rodríguez, E. Biochemical modulation of the sleep-wake cycle: endogenous sleep-inducing factors. J. Neurosci. Res., 2011, 89(8), 1143-1149.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.22666] [PMID: 21557294]
[20]
Huang, Z.L.; Zhang, Z.; Qu, W.M. Roles of adenosine and its receptors in sleep-wake regulation. Int. Rev. Neurobiol., 2014, 119, 349-371.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801022-8.00014-3] [PMID: 25175972]
[21]
Scammell, T.E. Overview of sleep: the neurologic processes of the sleep-wake cycle. J. Clin. Psychiatry, 2015, 76(5)e13
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.14046tx1c] [PMID: 26035194]
[22]
Monti, J.M.; Torterolo, P.; Jantos, H.; Lagos, P. Microinjection of the melanin-concentrating hormone into the sublaterodorsal tegmental nucleus inhibits REM sleep in the rat. Neurosci. Lett., 2016, 630, 66-69.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2016.07.035] [PMID: 27461793]
[23]
Lüthi, A. Sleep: Switching off the off-switch. Curr. Biol., 2016, 26(16), R765-R767.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.06.059] [PMID: 27554656]
[24]
Rancillac, A. Serotonin and sleep-promoting neurons. Oncotarget, 2016, 7(48), 78222-78223.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.13419] [PMID: 27861160]
[25]
Lee Kavanau, J. Evolutionary approaches to understanding sleep. Sleep Med. Rev., 2005, 9(2), 141-152.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2004.11.002] [PMID: 15737792]
[26]
Allada, R.; Cirelli, C.; Sehgal, A. Molecular Mechanisms of Sleep Homeostasis in Flies and Mammals. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol., 2017, 9(8)a027730
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a027730] [PMID: 28432135]
[27]
Burgess, H.J.; Emens, J.S. Circadian-based therapies for circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Curr. Sleep Med. Rep., 2016, 2(3), 158-165.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40675-016-0052-1] [PMID: 27990327]
[28]
Shangold, L. How to evaluate a diagnostic sleep study report. Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am., 2016, 49(6), 1307-1329.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otc.2016.07.003] [PMID: 27810014]
[29]
Ramar, K.; Olson, E.J. Management of common sleep disorders. Am. Fam. Physician, 2013, 88(4), 231-238.
[PMID: 23944726]
[30]
Khoury, J.; Doghramji, K. Primary sleep disorders. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 2015, 38(4), 683-704.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2015.08.002] [PMID: 26600103]
[31]
Merrigan, J.M.; Buysse, D.J.; Bird, J.C.; Livingston, E.H. JAMA patient page. Insomnia. JAMA, 2013, 309(7), 733.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.524] [PMID: 23423421]
[32]
Taylor, D.J.; Bramoweth, A.D.; Grieser, E.A.; Tatum, J.I.; Roane, B.M. Epidemiology of insomnia in college students: relationship with mental health, quality of life, and substance use difficulties. Behav. Ther., 2013, 44(3), 339-348.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2012.12.001] [PMID: 23768662]
[33]
Goldman-Mellor, S.; Gregory, A.M.; Caspi, A.; Harrington, H.; Parsons, M.; Poulton, R.; Moffitt, T.E. Mental health antecedents of early midlife insomnia: evidence from a four-decade longitudinal study. Sleep (Basel), 2014, 37(11), 1767-1775.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4168] [PMID: 25364072]
[34]
Riemann, D.; Nissen, C.; Palagini, L.; Otte, A.; Perlis, M.L.; Spiegelhalder, K. The neurobiology, investigation, and treatment of chronic insomnia. Lancet Neurol., 2015, 14(5), 547-558.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00021-6] [PMID: 25895933]
[35]
Van Someren, E.J.; Cirelli, C.; Dijk, D.J.; Van Cauter, E.; Schwartz, S.; Chee, M.W. Disrupted sleep: from molecules to cognition. J. Neurosci., 2015, 35(41), 13889-13895.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2592-15.2015] [PMID: 26468189]
[36]
Daniels, S.R. Sleep and obesity. J. Pediatr., 2009, 154(6), A3.
[PMID: 19446089]
[37]
Lazzarini, V.; Mentz, R.J.; Fiuzat, M.; Metra, M.; O’Connor, C.M. Heart failure in elderly patients: distinctive features and unresolved issues. Eur. J. Heart Fail., 2013, 15(7), 717-723.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hft028] [PMID: 23429975]
[38]
Dauvilliers, Y.; Lopez, R.; Ohayon, M.; Bayard, S. Hypersomnia and depressive symptoms: methodological and clinical aspects. BMC Med., 2013, 11, 78.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-11-78] [PMID: 23514569]
[39]
de Souza Vilela, T.; Bittencourt, L.R.; Tufik, S.; Moreira, G.A. Factors influencing excessive daytime sleepiness in adolescents. J. Pediatr. (Rio J.), 2016, 92(2), 149-155.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2015.05.006] [PMID: 26688555]
[40]
Zhao, Y.Y.; Blackwell, T.; Ensrud, K.E.; Stone, K.L.; Omachi, T.A.; Redline, S. Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study Group. Sleep Apnea and Obstructive Airway Disease in Older Men: Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men Study. Sleep (Basel), 2016, 39(7), 1343-1351.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.5960] [PMID: 27091524]
[41]
Gulyani, S.; Salas, R.; Mari, Z.; Choi, S.; Mahajan, A.; Gamaldo, C. Evaluating and managing sleep disorders in the Parkinson’s disease clinic. Basal Ganglia, 2016, 6(3), 165-172.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.baga.2016.05.001] [PMID: 27818912]
[42]
Cagnin, A.; Fragiacomo, F.; Camporese, G.; Turco, M.; Bussè, C.; Ermani, M.; Montagnese, S. Sleep-wake profile in dementia with lewy bodies, alzheimer’s disease, and normal aging. J. Alzheimers Dis., 2017, 55(4), 1529-1536.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-160385] [PMID: 27886007]
[43]
Gamaldo, A.A.; Beydoun, M.A.; Beydoun, H.A.; Liang, H.; Salas, R.E.; Zonderman, A.B.; Gamaldo, C.E.; Eid, S.M. Sleep Disturbances among older adults in the United States, 2002-2012: nationwide inpatient rates, predictors, and outcomes. Front. Aging Neurosci., 2016, 8, 266.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2016.00266] [PMID: 27895576]
[44]
Blazer, D.G.; Wallace, R.B. Cognitive Aging: What Every Geriatric Psychiatrist Should Know. Am. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry, 2016, 24(9), 776-781.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2016.06.013] [PMID: 27569270]
[45]
Musiek, E.S.; Holtzman, D.M. Mechanisms linking circadian clocks, sleep, and neurodegeneration. Science, 2016, 354(6315), 1004-1008.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aah4968] [PMID: 27885006]
[46]
Safarpour, D.; Willis, A.W. Clinical epidemiology, evaluation, and management of dementia in parkinson disease. Am. J. Alzheimers Dis. Other Demen., 2016, 31(7), 585-594.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533317516653823] [PMID: 27295974]
[47]
Taddei, R.N.; Werth, E.; Poryazova, R.; Baumann, C.R.; Valko, P.O. Diagnostic delay in narcolepsy type 1: combining the patients’ and the doctors’ perspectives. J. Sleep Res., 2016, 25(6), 709-715.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12420] [PMID: 27149919]
[48]
Kowald, A.; Kirkwood, T.B.L. Can aging be programmed? A critical literature review. Aging Cell, 2016, 15(6), 986-998.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12510] [PMID: 27534524]
[49]
Lazzarini, V.; Mentz, R.J.; Fiuzat, M.; Metra, M.; O’Connor, C.M. Heart failure in elderly patients: distinctive features and unresolved issues. Eur. J. Heart Fail., 2013, 15(7), 717-723.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjhf/hft028] [PMID: 23429975]
[50]
Robles, N.R.; Macias, J.F. Hypertension in the elderly. Cardiovasc. Hematol. Agents Med. Chem., 2015, 12(3), 136-145.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871525713666150310112350] [PMID: 25761101]
[51]
Akinola, O.B. Sweet old memories: a review of the experimental models of the association between diabetes, senility and dementia. Metab. Brain Dis., 2016, 31(5), 1003-1010.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-016-9876-0] [PMID: 27444168]
[52]
Balducci, L. Cancer Prevention in the Older Individual. Semin. Oncol. Nurs., 2016, 32(3), 314-324.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soncn.2016.05.011] [PMID: 27539285]
[53]
Selman, M.; Buendía-Roldán, I.; Pardo, A. Aging and pulmonary fibrosis. Rev. Invest. Clin., 2016, 68(2), 75-83.
[PMID: 27103043]
[54]
Crowley, K. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults. Neuropsychol. Rev., 2011, 21(1), 41-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11065-010-9154-6] [PMID: 21225347]
[55]
Zdanys, K.F.; Steffens, D.C. Sleep Disturbances in the Elderly. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 2015, 38(4), 723-741.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2015.07.010] [PMID: 26600105]
[56]
Mattis, J.; Sehgal, A. Circadian rhythms, sleep, and disorders of aging. Trends Endocrinol. Metab., 2016, 27(4), 192-203.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2016.02.003] [PMID: 26947521]
[57]
Smagula, S.F.; Stone, K.L.; Fabio, A.; Cauley, J.A. Risk factors for sleep disturbances in older adults: evidence from prospective studies. Sleep Med. Rev., 2016, 25, 21-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2015.01.003] [PMID: 26140867]
[58]
Buysse, D.J. Insomnia. JAMA, 2013, 309(7), 706-716.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.193] [PMID: 23423416]
[59]
Kay-Stacey, M.; Attarian, H. Advances in the management of chronic insomnia. BMJ, 2016, 354, i2123.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i2123] [PMID: 27383400]
[60]
[61]
Kamel, N.S.; Gammack, J.K. Insomnia in the elderly: cause, approach, and treatment. Am. J. Med., 2006, 119(6), 463-469.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.10.051] [PMID: 16750956]
[62]
Wennberg, A.M.; Canham, S.L.; Smith, M.T.; Spira, A.P. Optimizing sleep in older adults: treating insomnia. Maturitas, 2013, 76(3), 247-252.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.05.007] [PMID: 23746664]
[63]
Patel, K.V.; Cochrane, B.B.; Turk, D.C.; Bastian, L.A.; Haskell, S.G.; Woods, N.F.; Zaslavsky, O.; Wallace, R.B.; Kerns, R.D. Association of pain with physical function, depressive symptoms, fatigue, and sleep quality among veteran and non-veteran postmenopausal women. Gerontologist, 2016, 56(Suppl. 1), S91-S101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnv670] [PMID: 26768395]
[64]
Sweetman, A.M.; Lack, L.C.; Catcheside, P.G.; Antic, N.A.; Chai-Coetzer, C.L.; Smith, S.S.; Douglas, J.A.; McEvoy, R.D. Developing a successful treatment for co-morbid insomnia and sleep apnoea. Sleep Med. Rev., 2017, 33, 28-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2016.04.004] [PMID: 27401786]
[65]
Spira, A.P.; Stone, K.L.; Rebok, G.W.; Punjabi, N.M.; Redline, S.; Ancoli-Israel, S.; Yaffe, K. Sleep-disordered breathing and functional decline in older women. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 2014, 62(11), 2040-2046.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13108] [PMID: 25376169]
[66]
Shastri, A.; Bangar, S.; Holmes, J. Obstructive sleep apnoea and dementia: is there a link? Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry, 2016, 31(4), 400-405.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.4345] [PMID: 26266479]
[67]
Endeshaw, Y.; Rice, T.B.; Schwartz, A.V.; Stone, K.L.; Manini, T.M.; Satterfield, S.; Cummings, S.; Harris, T.; Pahor, M. Health ABC Study. Snoring, daytime sleepiness, and incident cardiovascular disease in the health, aging, and body composition study. Sleep (Basel), 2013, 36(11), 1737-1745.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5665/sleep.3140] [PMID: 24179308]
[68]
Senaratna, C.V.; Perret, J.L.; Lodge, C.J.; Lowe, A.J.; Campbell, B.E.; Matheson, M.C.; Hamilton, G.S.; Dhar-mage, S.C. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in the general population: a systematic review. Sleep Med Rev,, 2016. S1087-0792(16), 30064-30068.
[69]
Chapman, J.L.; Serinel, Y.; Marshall, N.S.; Grunstein, R.R. Residual Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea After Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Optimization: Causes and Management. Sleep Med. Clin., 2016, 11(3), 353-363.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2016.05.005] [PMID: 27542881]
[70]
Kassim, R.; Harris, M.A.; Leong, G.M.; Heussler, H. Obstructive sleep apnoea in children with obesity. J. Paediatr. Child Health, 2016, 52(3), 284-290.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.13009] [PMID: 26748912]
[71]
Anttalainen, U.; Saaresranta, T.; Kalleinen, N.; Aittokallio, J.; Vahlberg, T.; Polo, O. Gender differences in age and BMI distributions in partial upper airway obstruction during sleep. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol., 2007, 159(2), 219-226.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2007.07.007] [PMID: 17869189]
[72]
Saint Martin, M.; Roche, F.; Thomas, T.; Collet, P.; Barthélémy, J.C.; Sforza, E. Association of body fat composition and obstructive sleep apnea in the elderly: a longitudinal study. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2015, 23(7), 1511-1516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.21121] [PMID: 26054548]
[73]
Yamaguchi, K.; Inoue, Y.; Ohki, N.; Satoya, N.; Inoue, F.; Maeda, Y.; Sekiguchi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tsuji, T.; Aoshiba, K.; Nagai, A. Gender-specific impacts of apnea, age, and BMI on parasympathetic nerve dysfunction during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. PLoS One, 2014, 9(3)e92808
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092808] [PMID: 24667894]
[74]
Cai, A.; Wang, L.; Zhou, Y. Hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea. Hypertens. Res., 2016, 39(6), 391-395.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/hr.2016.11] [PMID: 26888120]
[75]
Javaheri, S.; Barbe, F.; Campos-Rodriguez, F.; Dempsey, J.A.; Khayat, R.; Javaheri, S.; Malhotra, A.; Martinez-Garcia, M.A.; Mehra, R.; Pack, A.I.; Polotsky, V.Y.; Redline, S.; Somers, V.K. Sleep apnea: types, mechanisms, and clinical cardiovascular consequences. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2017, 69(7), 841-858.
[76]
Koo, B.B.; Bagai, K.; Walters, A.S. Restless legs syndrome: current concepts about disease pathophysiology. Tremor Other Hyperkinet. Mov. (N. Y.), 2016, 6, 401.
[PMID: 27536462]
[77]
Rizzo, G.; Li, X.; Galantucci, S.; Filippi, M.; Cho, Y.W. Brain imaging and networks in restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med., 2017, 31, 39-48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2016.07.018] [PMID: 27838239]
[78]
Picchietti, D.L.; Van Den Eeden, S.K.; Inoue, Y.; Berger, K. Achievements, challenges, and future perspectives of epidemiologic research in restless legs syndrome (RLS). Sleep Med., 2017, 31, 3-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2016.06.007] [PMID: 27567163]
[79]
Bertisch, S. In the Clinic. Restless legs syndrome. Ann. Intern. Med., 2015, 163(9), ITC1-ITC11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/AITC201511030] [PMID: 26524584]
[80]
Neikrug, A.B.; Ancoli-Israel, S. Sleep disorders in the older adult - a mini-review. Gerontology, 2010, 56(2), 181-189.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000236900] [PMID: 19738366]
[81]
Bogan, R.K. From bench to bedside: An overview of rotigotine for the treatment of restless legs syndrome. Clin. Ther., 2014, 36(3), 436-455.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2014.01.021] [PMID: 24636821]
[82]
Garnock-Jones, K.P. Rotigotine transdermal patch: a review in restless legs syndrome. Drugs, 2016, 76(10), 1031-1040.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40265-016-0601-4] [PMID: 27324269]
[83]
Nishino, S.; Sagawa, Y. The neurochemistry of awakening: findings from sleep disorder narcolepsy. Int. Rev. Neurobiol., 2010, 93, 229-255.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0074-7742(10)93010-9] [PMID: 20970008]
[84]
Luca, G.; Haba-Rubio, J.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Lammers, G.J.; Overeem, S.; Donjacour, C.E.; Mayer, G.; Javidi, S.; Iranzo, A.; Santamaria, J.; Peraita-Adrados, R.; Hor, H.; Kutalik, Z.; Plazzi, G.; Poli, F.; Pizza, F.; Arnulf, I.; Lecendreux, M.; Bassetti, C.; Mathis, J.; Heinzer, R.; Jennum, P.; Knudsen, S.; Geisler, P.; Wierzbicka, A.; Feketeova, E.; Pfister, C.; Khatami, R.; Baumann, C.; Tafti, M. European Narcolepsy Network. Clinical, polysomnographic and genome-wide association analyses of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a European Narcolepsy Network study. J. Sleep Res., 2013, 22(5), 482-495.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12044] [PMID: 23496005]
[85]
Dauvilliers, Y.; Gosselin, A.; Paquet, J.; Touchon, J.; Billiard, M.; Montplaisir, J. Effect of age on MSLT results in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. Neurology, 2004, 62(1), 46-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000101725.34089.1E] [PMID: 14718696]
[86]
Chakravorty, S.S.; Rye, D.B. Narcolepsy in the older adult: epidemiology, diagnosis and management. Drugs Aging, 2003, 20(5), 361-376.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00002512-200320050-00005] [PMID: 12696996]
[87]
Scammell, T.E.; Matheson, J.K.; Honda, M.; Thannickal, T.C.; Siegel, J.M. Coexistence of narcolepsy and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol. Aging, 2012, 33(7), 1318-1319.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.12.008] [PMID: 21257235]
[88]
Roh, J.H.; Jiang, H.; Finn, M.B.; Stewart, F.R.; Mahan, T.E.; Cirrito, J.R.; Heda, A.; Snider, B.J.; Li, M.; Yanagisawa, M.; de Lecea, L.; Holtzman, D.M. Potential role of orexin and sleep modulation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. J. Exp. Med., 2014, 211(13), 2487-2496.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20141788] [PMID: 25422493]
[89]
Nixon, J.P.; Mavanji, V.; Butterick, T.A.; Billington, C.J.; Kotz, C.M.; Teske, J.A. Sleep disorders, obesity, and aging: the role of orexin. Ageing Res. Rev., 2015, 20, 63-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2014.11.001] [PMID: 25462194]
[90]
Kovalská, P.; Kemlink, D.; Nevšímalová, S. Maurovich, Horvat.; Jarolímova, E.; Topinková, E.; Šonka, K. Narcolepsy with cataplexy in patients aged over 60 years: a case-control study. Sleep Med., 2016, 26, 79-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2016.05.011] [PMID: 27665501]
[91]
Campos, A.C.; Ferreira e Ferreira, E.; Vargas, A.M.; Albala, C. Aging, Gender and Quality of Life (AGEQOL) study: factors associated with good quality of life in older Brazilian community-dwelling adults. Health Qual. Life Outcomes, 2014, 12, 166.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-014-0166-4] [PMID: 25433521]
[92]
De Luca d’Alessandro, E.; Bonacci, S.; Giraldi, G. Aging populations: the health and quality of life of the elderly. Clin. Ter., 2011, 162(1), e13-e18.
[PMID: 21448536]
[93]
Egan, K.J.; Knutson, K.L.; Pereira, A.C.; von Schantz, M. The role of race and ethnicity in sleep, circadian rhythms and cardiovascular health. Sleep Med. Rev., 2017, 33, 70-78.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2016.05.004] [PMID: 27908540]
[94]
Castelló-Domenech, A.B.; Del Valle, V.I.; Fernández-Garrido, J.; Martínez-Martínez, M.; Cauli, O. Sleep alterations in non-demented older individuals: The role of cortisol. Endocr. Metab. Immune Disord. Drug Targets, 2016, 16(3), 174-180.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530316666161130155003] [PMID: 27908262]
[95]
Xiao, Q.; Gu, F.; Caporaso, N.; Matthews, C.E. Relationship between sleep characteristics and measures of body size and composition in a nationally-representative sample. BMC Obes., 2016, 3, 48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40608-016-0128-y] [PMID: 27857841]
[96]
Bruin, V.M.; Bittencourt, L.R.; Tufik, S. Sleep-wake disturbances in Parkinson’s disease: current evidence regarding diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Eur. Neurol., 2012, 67(5), 257-267.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000335078] [PMID: 22472981]
[97]
Kessler, R.C.; Bromet, E.J. The epidemiology of depression across cultures. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 2013, 34, 119-138.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031912-114409] [PMID: 23514317]
[98]
Peterson, M.J.; Benca, R.M. Sleep in mood disorders. Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 2006, 29(4), 1009-1032.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2006.09.003] [PMID: 17118279]
[99]
Murphy, M.J.; Peterson, M.J. Sleep Disturbances in Depression. Sleep Med. Clin., 2015, 10(1), 17-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2014.11.009] [PMID: 26055669]
[100]
Luca, A.; Luca, M.; Calandra, C. Sleep disorders and depression: brief review of the literature, case report, and nonpharmacologic interventions for depression. Clin. Interv. Aging, 2013, 8, 1033-1039.
[PMID: 24019746]
[101]
Almeida, O.P.; Pfaff, J.J. Sleep complaints among older general practice patients: association with depression. Br. J. Gen. Pract., 2005, 55(520), 864-866.
[PMID: 16282003]
[102]
Xian, H.; Gonzalez, C.; Deych, E.; Farris, S.; Ding, J.; Shannon, W.; McCall, W.V. Age-related effects on circadian phase in the sleep of patients with depression and insomnia. Behav. Sleep Med., 2015, 13(3), 208-216.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2013.855213] [PMID: 24654955]
[103]
World Health Organization. Ageing and health. Fact sheet N°404 September, 2015.
[104]
Adav, S.S.; Sze, S.K. Insight of brain degenerative protein modifications in the pathology of neurodegeneration and dementia by proteomic profiling. Mol. Brain, 2016, 9(1), 92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-016-0272-9] [PMID: 27809929]
[105]
Kawada, T. Sleep duration and cognitive impairment in older adults. Aging Clin. Exp. Res., 2017, 29(4), 817.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-016-0631-5] [PMID: 27682434]
[106]
Zhang, F.; Zhong, R.; Li, S.; Chang, R.C.; Le, W. The missing link between sleep disorders and age-related dementia: recent evidence and plausible mechanisms. J. Neural Transm. (Vienna), 2017, 124(5), 559-568.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-017-1696-9] [PMID: 28188439]
[107]
Spira, A.P.; Gottesman, R.F. Sleep disturbance: an emerging opportunity for Alzheimer’s disease prevention? Int. Psychogeriatr., 2017, 29(4), 529-531.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610216002131] [PMID: 27938445]
[108]
Westwood, A.J.; Beiser, A.; Jain, N.; Himali, J.J.; DeCarli, C.; Auerbach, S.H.; Pase, M.P.; Seshadri, S. Prolonged sleep duration as a marker of early neurodegeneration predicting incident dementia. Neurology, 2017, 88(12), 1172-1179.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003732] [PMID: 28228567]
[109]
Barone, D.A.; Chokroverty, S. Neurologic diseases and sleep. Sleep Med. Clin., 2017, 12(1), 73-85.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2016.10.007] [PMID: 28159099]
[110]
Neikrug, A.B.; Maglione, J.E.; Liu, L.; Natarajan, L.; Avanzino, J.A.; Corey-Bloom, J.; Palmer, B.W.; Loredo, J.S.; Ancoli-Israel, S. Effects of sleep disorders on the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease. J. Clin. Sleep Med., 2013, 9(11), 1119-1129.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.3148] [PMID: 24235892]
[111]
Ju, Y.S.; Videnovic, A.; Vaughn, B.V. Comorbid sleep disturbances in neurologic disorders. Continuum (Minneap. Minn.), , 2017, 23(4, Sleep Neurology), 1117-1131.
[PMID: 28777179]
[112]
Videnovic, A. Management of sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy. Mov. Disord., 2017, 32(5), 659-668.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.26918] [PMID: 28116784]
[113]
Ehgoetz Martens, K.A.; Lewis, S.J. Pathology of behavior in PD: What is known and what is not? J. Neurol. Sci., 2017, 374, 9-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2016.12.062] [PMID: 28089250]
[114]
Tekriwal, A.; Kern, D.S.; Tsai, J.; Ince, N.F.; Wu, J.; Thompson, J.A.; Abosch, A. REM sleep behaviour disorder: prodromal and mechanistic insights for Parkinson’s disease. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 2017, 88(5), 445-451.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2016-314471] [PMID: 27965397]
[115]
Gallea, C.; Ewenczyk, C.; Degos, B.; Welter, M.L.; Grabli, D.; Leu-Semenescu, S.; Valabregue, R.; Berroir, P.; Yahia-Cherif, L.; Bertasi, E.; Fernandez-Vidal, S.; Bardinet, E.; Roze, E.; Benali, H.; Poupon, C.; François, C.; Arnulf, I.; Lehéricy, S.; Vidailhet, M. Pedunculopontine network dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease with postural control and sleep disorders. Mov. Disord., 2017, 32(5), 693-704.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.26923] [PMID: 28164375]
[116]
Videnovic, A. Management of sleep disorders in Parkinson’s disease and multiple system atrophy. Mov. Disord., 2017, 32(5), 659-668.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.26918] [PMID: 28116784]
[117]
Ylikoski, A.; Martikainen, K.; Sieminski, M.; Partinen, M. Sleeping difficulties and health-related quality of life in Parkinson’s disease. Acta Neurol. Scand., 2017, 135(4), 459-468.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ane.12620] [PMID: 27282092]
[118]
Wolkove, N.; Elkholy, O.; Baltzan, M.; Palayew, M. Sleep and aging: 2. Management of sleep disorders in older people. CMAJ, 2007, 176(10), 1449-1454.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.070335] [PMID: 17485699]
[119]
Wortelboer, U.; Cohrs, S.; Rodenbeck, A.; Rüther, E. Tolerability of hypnosedatives in older patients. Drugs Aging, 2002, 19(7), 529-539.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00002512-200219070-00006] [PMID: 12182689]
[120]
McCrae, C.S.; Ross, A.; Stripling, A.; Dautovich, N.D. Eszopiclone for late-life insomnia. Clin. Interv. Aging, 2007, 2(3), 313-326.
[PMID: 18044182]
[121]
Pandi-Perumal, S.R. BaHammam, A.S.; Brown, G.M.; Spence, D.W.; Bharti, V.K.; Kaur, C.; Hardeland, R.; Cardi-nali, D.P. Melatonin antioxidative defense: therapeutical im-plications for aging and neurodegenerative processes. Neurotox. Res., 2013, 23(3), 267-300.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-012-9337-4] [PMID: 22739839]
[122]
Li, C.T.; Su, T.P.; Wang, Y.; Lee, B.; Toh, M.; Ho, T. Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Zolpidem Nasal Spray for Rapid Management of Insomnia: First Trial in Humans. J. Clin. Sleep Med., 2016, 12(11), 1453-1459.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.6264] [PMID: 27568900]
[123]
Lyseng-Williamson, K.A. Melatonin prolonged release: in the treatment of insomnia in patients aged ≥55 years. Drugs Aging, 2012, 29(11), 911-923.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40266-012-0018-z] [PMID: 23044640]
[124]
Chen, L.; Bell, J.S.; Visvanathan, R.; Hilmer, S.N.; Emery, T.; Robson, L.; Hughes, J.M.; Tan, E.C. The association between benzodiazepine use and sleep quality in residential aged care facilities: a cross-sectional study. BMC Geriatr., 2016, 16(1), 196.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-016-0363-6] [PMID: 27888835]
[125]
McWhirter, D.; Bae, C.; Budur, K. The assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of excessive sleepiness: practical considerations for the psychiatrist. Psychiatry (Edgmont Pa.), 2007, 4(9), 26-35.
[PMID: 20532118]
[126]
Slater, G.; Steier, J. Excessive daytime sleepiness in sleep disorders. J. Thorac. Dis., 2012, 4(6), 608-616.
[PMID: 23205286]
[127]
Saccomano, S.J. Sleep disorders in older adults. J. Gerontol. Nurs., 2014, 40(3), 38-45.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20131029-06] [PMID: 24219077]
[128]
Abad, V.C.; Guilleminault, C. New developments in the management of narcolepsy. Nat. Sci. Sleep, 2017, 9, 39-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S103467] [PMID: 28424564]
[129]
Dos Santos, A.B.; Barreto, G.E.; Kohlmeier, K.A. Treatment of sleeping disorders should be considered in clinical management of Parkinson’s disease. Front. Aging Neurosci., 2014, 6, 273.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00273] [PMID: 25346687]
[130]
Robillard, R.; Bouchard, M.; Cartier, A.; Nicolau, L.; Carrier, J. Sleep is more sensitive to high doses of caffeine in the middle years of life. J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford), 2015, 29(6), 688-697.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881115575535] [PMID: 25759402]
[131]
Clark, I.; Landolt, H.P. Coffee, caffeine, and sleep: A systematic review of epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials. Sleep Med. Rev., 2017, 31, 70-78.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2016.01.006] [PMID: 26899133]
[132]
Wise, M.S.; Arand, D.L.; Auger, R.R.; Brooks, S.N.; Watson, N.F. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Treatment of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias of central origin. Sleep, 2007, 30(12), 1712-1727.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/30.12.1712] [PMID: 18246981]
[133]
Barateau, L.; Lopez, R.; Dauvilliers, Y. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy. CNS Drugs, 2016, 30(5), 369-379.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-016-0337-4] [PMID: 27155860]
[134]
Fiorentino, L.; Martin, J.L. Awake at 4 AM: treatment of insomnia with early morning awakenings among older adults. J. Clin. Psychol., 2010, 66(11), 1161-1174.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20734] [PMID: 20845423]
[135]
Ferini-Strambi, L.; Marelli, S.; Galbiati, A.; Castronovo, C. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on cognitition and neuroimaging data in sleep apnea. Int. J. Psychophysiol., 2013, 89(2), 203-212.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2013.03.022] [PMID: 23570950]
[136]
Whitla, L.; Lennon, P. Non-surgical management of obstructive sleep apnoea: a review. Paediatr. Int. Child Health, 2017, 37(1), 1-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20469047.2016.1162391] [PMID: 27077480]
[137]
Sakarya, E.U.; Bayar Muluk, N. Sakalar. E.G.; Senturk, M.; Aricigil, M.; Bafaqeeh, S.A.; Cingi, C. Use of intranasal cor-ticosteroids in adenotonsillar hypertrophy. J. Laryngol. Otol., 2017, 131(5), 384-390.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022215117000408] [PMID: 28238295]
[138]
Larouche, M.; Côté, G.; Bélisle, D.; Lorrain, D. Kind attention and non-judgment in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy applied to the treatment of insomnia: state of knowledge. Pathol. Biol. (Paris), 2014, 62(5), 284-291.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patbio.2014.07.002] [PMID: 25104242]
[139]
Irwin, M.R.; Olmstead, R.; Breen, E.C.; Witarama, T.; Carrillo, C.; Sadeghi, N.; Arevalo, J.M.; Ma, J.; Nicassio, P.; Bootzin, R.; Cole, S. Cognitive behavioral therapy and tai chi reverse cellular and genomic markers of inflammation in late-life insomnia: a randomized controlled trial. Biol. Psychiatry, 2015, 78(10), 721-729.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.01.010] [PMID: 25748580]
[140]
Shub, D.; Darvishi, R.; Kunik, M.E. Non-pharmacologic treatment of insomnia in persons with dementia. Geriatrics, 2009, 64(2), 22-26.
[PMID: 19256583]
[141]
Thompson, R.; Schofield, B. Insomnia: how can I promote an environment that supports sleep for people with dementia? Nurs. Older People, 2013, 25(2), 12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/nop2013.03.25.2.12.s11] [PMID: 23581219]
[142]
Hanford, N.; Figueiro, M. Light therapy and Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia: past, present, and future. J. Alzheimers Dis., 2013, 33(4), 913-922.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2012-121645] [PMID: 23099814]
[143]
Vaz Fragoso, C.A.; Miller, M.E.; King, A.C.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Liu, C.K.; Myers, V.H.; Nadkarni, N.K.; Pahor, M.; Spring, B.J.; Gill, T.M. Lifestyle interventions and independence for elders study group. effect of structured physical activity on sleep-wake behaviors in sedentary elderly adults with mobility limitations. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 2015, 63(7), 1381-1390.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13509] [PMID: 26115386]
[144]
Figorilli, M.; Puligheddu, M.; Ferri, R. Restless legs syndrome/willis-ekbom disease and periodic limb movements in sleep in the elderly with and without dementia. Sleep Med. Clin., 2015, 10(3), 331-342. xiv-xv.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2015.05.011] [PMID: 26329443]
[145]
Sheng, P.; Hou, L.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.; Huang, C.; Yu, M.; Han, X.; Dong, Y. Efficacy of modafinil on fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness associated with neurological disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 2013, 8(12)e81802
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081802] [PMID: 24312590]
[146]
Sengul, Y.; Sengul, H.S.; Yucekaya, S.K.; Yucel, S.; Bakim, B.; Pazarcı, N.K.; Özdemir, G. Cognitive functions, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances: assessment of nonmotor features in young patients with essential tremor. Acta Neurol. Belg., 2015, 115(3), 281-287.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-014-0396-6] [PMID: 25471376]
[147]
Vinnikov, D.; Blanc, P.D.; Alilin, A.; Zutler, M.; Holty, J.C. Fatigue and sleepiness determine respiratory quality of life among veterans evaluated for sleep apnea. Health Qual. Life Outcomes, 2017, 15(1), 48.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-017-0624-x] [PMID: 28288646]
[148]
Carvalho, D.Z.; St Louis, E.K.; Boeve, B.F.; Mielke, M.M.; Przybelski, S.A.; Knopman, D.S.; Machulda, M.M.; Roberts, R.O.; Geda, Y.E.; Petersen, R.C.; Jack, C.R., Jr; Vemuri, P. Excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue may indicate accelerated brain aging in cognitively normal late middle-aged and older adults. Sleep Med., 2017, 32, 236-243.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2016.08.023] [PMID: 28065685]
[149]
Baril, A.A.; Gagnon, K.; Brayet, P.; Montplaisir, J.; De Beaumont, L.; Carrier, J.; Lafond, C.; L’Heureux, F.; Gag-non, J.F.; Gosselin, N. Gray matter hypertrophy and thickening with obstructive sleep apnea in middle-aged and older adults. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., In press
[150]
Horner, R.L.; Grace, K.P.; Wellman, A. A resource of potential drug targets and strategic decision-making for obstructive sleep apnoea pharmacotherapy. Respirology, 2017, 22(5), 861-873.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13079] [PMID: 28544082]
[151]
Theorell-Haglöw, J.; Miller, C.B.; Bartlett, D.J.; Yee, B.J.; Openshaw, H.D.; Grunstein, R.R. Gender differences in obstructive sleep apnoea, insomnia and restless legs syndrome in adults-What do we know? A clinical update Sleep Med Rev, , 2017. S1087-0792, 30061-30068.
[152]
Hesselbacher, S.; Subramanian, S.; Rao, S.; Casturi, L.; Surani, S. Self-reported sleep bruxism and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: relationship to gender and ethnicity. Open Respir. Med. J., 2014, 8, 34-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874306401408010034] [PMID: 25352924]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 25
Year: 2019
Page: [4775 - 4785]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/0929867325666180904113115
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 25
HTML: 2