Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent cardiac arrhythmia. It is a common major cause of serious diseases
and is an increasing health-care burden. AF is associated with an excess amount of reactive oxygen species. In
this review, we summarize several possible reactive oxygen species pathways that induce AF based on atrial
electrical and structural remodeling data. The sources and factors implicated in AF-related oxidative stress include
NADPH oxidase activation, calcium overloading and mitochondrial damage, angiotensin system activation,
nitric oxide synthase uncoupling, and xanthine oxidase activation-associated cardiovascular conditions. Scavenging
oxidative stress markers and related substances are essential aspects of these molecular mechanisms, and may
be a therapeutic target in AF.
Keywords: Oxidative stress, atrial fibrillation, mechanisms, treatments, ROS, angiotensin.
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