Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) constitute one of the most broad and diverse
classes of cellular transcripts, playing key roles as regulatory molecules in many biological
processes. Although the biology of lncRNAs is a new and emerging field of research, several
studies have already shown that alterations in the expression of lncRNAs are associated with
the development and progression of cancer in different organs and tissues, including central
and peripheral nervous system. In this review, we summarize the oncogenic and tumor suppressive
roles of lncRNAs in malignant tumors of the nervous system, such as glioma and
neuroblastoma, focusing on their functional interactions with DNA, other RNA and protein
molecules. We further discuss the potential use of lncRNAs as biomarkers for diagnosis,
prognosis and tumor treatment. Gaining insight into the functional association between nervous
system malignancies and lncRNAs could offer new perspectives to the development of
promising therapeutic tools against cancer.
Keywords: Glioblastoma, Neuroblastoma, HOTAIR, XIST, MALAT1, MEG3, I-BET, circulating lncRNAs.
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