Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) involves an immune-mediated response in which
body’s immune system destructs the protective sheath (myelin). Part of the known MS biomarkers are
discovered in cerebrospinal fluid like oligoclonal lgG (OCGB), and also in blood like myelin oligodendrocyte
glycoprotein (MOG). The conventional MS diagnostic methods often fail to detect the
disease in early stages such as clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), which considered as a concerning
issue since CIS highlighted as a prognostic factor of MS development in most cases.
Methods: MS diagnostic techniques include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal
cord, lumbar puncture (or spinal tap) that evaluate cerebrospinal fluid, evoked potential testing revealing
abnormalities in the brain and spinal cord. These conventional diagnostic methods have some
negative points such as extensive processing time as well as restriction in the quantity of samples that
can be analyzed concurrently. Scientists have focused on developing the detection methods especially
early detection which belongs to ultra-sensitive, non-invasive and needed for the point of care (POC)
diagnosis because the situation was complicated by false positive or negative results.
Results: As a result, biosensors are utilized and investigated since they could be ultra-sensitive to specific
compounds, cost effective devices, body-friendly and easy to implement. In addition, it has been
proved that the biosensors on physiological fluids (blood, serum, urine, saliva, milk etc.) have quick
response in a non-invasive rout. In general form, a biosensor system for diagnosis and early detection
process usually involves; biomarker (target molecule), bio receptor (recognition element) and compatible
Conclusion: Studies underlined that early treatment of patients with high possibility of MS can be advantageous
by postponing further abnormalities on MRI and subsequent attacks.
This Review highlights variable disease diagnosis approaches such as Surface Plasmon Resonance
(SPR), electrochemical biosensors, Microarrays and microbeads based Microarrays, which are considered
as promising methods for detection and early detection of MS.