Extensive Phytochemistry, Comprehensive Traditional Uses, and Critical Pharmacological Profile of the Great Mullein: Verbascum thapsus L

Author(s): Mohd A. Dar, Mohammad F. Bhat, Reyaz Hassan, Mubashir H. Masoodi*, Showkat R. Mir, Roohi Mohiuddin.

Journal Name: The Natural Products Journal

Volume 9 , Issue 3 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Great Mullein; Verbascum thapsus has been traditionally used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, spasmolytic, astringent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant piles, bruises and frostbites in Greece, Western United States, Rome, India, Turkey, Italy, and Pakistan.

Objective: The aim of the present review is to summarize ethnopharmacology and past/recent studies on phytochemistry, plant profile, botany and pharmacological profile of V. thapsus. The review also updates related information regarding the potential therapeutic targets and new metabolites isolated from V. thapsus.

Methods: All the information was supplied by the library database and electronic search (Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, ResearchGate, etc.). In addition, all the synonyms of V. thapsus were searched in Non-English journals and English/Non-English- MS and PhD thesis databases (e.g., CKNI-China, JAIRO-Japan, Shodhganga-India, Myto-Malaysia, etc.). Thorough literature survey on V. thapsus revealed compounds like glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, and terpenoids that have previously been reported and new compounds under these chemical classes and other classes have also been reported.

Conclusion: Based on the literature survey, many of these isolated compounds or different extracts of V. thapsus possess a wide range of biological activity including but not limited to, antioxidant, wound-healing, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, cytotoxic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-germination, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity.

Keywords: Verbascum thapsus, biological activity, phytochemistry, traditional uses, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic.

[1]
Silva, N.; Júnior, F.A. Biological properties of medicinal plants: A review of their antimicrobial activity. J. Venom Anim. Tox. Trop. Dis., 2010, 3, 402-413.
[2]
Maciel, M.A.M.; Pinto, A.C.; Veiga, Jr, V.F.; Grynberg, N.F.; Echevarria, A. Medicinal plants: The need for multidisciplinary scientific studies. Quim. Nova, 2002, 3, 429-438.
[3]
Cowan, M.M. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 1999, 4, 564-582.
[4]
Dhiman, R.; Aggarwal, N.; Aneja, K.R.; Kaur, M. In vitro antimicrobial activity of spices and medicinal herbs against selected microbes associated with juices. Int. J. Microbiol., 2016, 2016, 9015802.
[5]
Carvalho, A.C.B.; Nunes, D.; Baratelli, T.; Shuqair Nsmsaq, N.E. Aspectos da legislação no controle dos medicamentos fitoterápicos. T&C Amazônia 2017, 11, 26-32.
[6]
Sanchez, J.A.; Gillespie, D.R.; McGregor, R.R. The effects of mullein plants (Verbascum thapsus) on the population dynamics of Dicyphus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) in tomato greenhouses. Biol. Control, 2003, 3, 313-319.
[7]
Riaz, M.; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; Jaafar, H.Z. Common mullein, pharmacological and chemical aspects. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn., 2013, 6, 948-959.
[8]
Catara, S.; Cristaudo, A.; Gualtieri, A.; Galesi, R.; Impelluso, C.; Onofri, A. Threshold temperatures for seed germination in nine species of Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae). Seed Sci. Res., 2016, 1, 30-46.
[9]
Gross, K.L.; Werner, P.A. Colonizing abilities of biennial plant species in relation to ground cover: Implications for their distributions in a successional sere. Ecology, 1982, 4, 921-931.
[10]
Attar, F.; Keshvari, A.; Ghahreman, A.; Zarre, S.; Aghabeigi, F. Micromorphological studies on Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae) in Iran with emphasis on seed surface, capsule ornamentation and trichomes. Flora Morphol. Distribut. Funct. Ecol. Plant, 2007, 2, 169-175.
[11]
Mahek, A.; Tanveer, N.; Jayalakshmi, S. Pharmacognostical standardisation and physico-chemical valuations of leaves of Verbascum thapsus Linn. Int. J. Drug Dev. Res, 2011, 3, 334-340.
[12]
Turker, A.U.; Gurel, E. Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.): Recent advances in research. Phytother. Res., 2005, 9, 733-739.
[13]
Riaz, M.; Rahman, N.; Zia-Ul-Haq, M. Anthelmintic and insecticidal activities of Verbascum thapsus L. Pak. J. Zool., 2013, 6, 1593-1598.
[14]
Shinwari, Z.K.; Gilani, S.S. Sustainable harvest of medicinal plants at Bulashbar Nullah, Astore (Northern Pakistan). J. Ethnopharmacol., 2003, 2, 289-298.
[15]
Gross, K.L.; Werner, P.A. The biology of Canadian weeds.: 28. Verbascum thapsus L. and V. Blattaria L. Can. J. Sci., 1978, 2, 401-413.
[16]
Hoshovsky, M. Element stewardship abstract for Verbascum thapsus, common mullein; The Nature Conservancy: Arlington, Virginia, 1986.
[17]
Ansari, S.; Daehler, C.C. Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus): A literature review. Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit; University of Hawaii: Manoa, 2000.
[18]
Muenscher, W.C. Weeds of New York; Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station: Ithaca, 1935.
[19]
Evans, R.A.; Easi, D.A.; Book, D.N.; Young, J.A. Quadratic response surface analysis of seed-germination trials. Weed Sci., 1982, 4, 411-416.
[20]
Muenscher, W.C. Weeds; The Macmillan Company: New York, 1960.
[21]
Horwitz, R.J. Clinical Roundup. Altern. Complement. Ther., 2009, 25(3), 167.
[22]
Mack, R.N.; Erneberg, M. The United States naturalized flora: Largely the product of deliberate introductions. Ann. Missouri Botan. Garden,., 2002, 89(2), 176-189.
[23]
Dülger, B.; Kirmizi, S.; Arslan, H.; Güleryüz, G. Antimicrobial activity of three endemic Verbascum species. Pharm. Biol., 2002, 8, 587-589.
[24]
Viegi, L.; Pieroni, A.; Guarrera, P.M.; Vangelisti, R. A review of plants used in folk veterinary medicine in Italy as basis for a databank. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2003, 2, 221-244.
[25]
Manganelli, R.U.; Camangi, F.; Tomei, P. Curing animals with plants: Traditional usage in Tuscany (Italy). J. Ethnopharmacol., 2001, 2, 171-191.
[26]
Leporatti, M.L.; Ivancheva, S. Preliminary comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2003, 2, 123-142.
[27]
Sher, H. Ethnoecological evaluation of some medicinal and aromatic plants of Kot Malakand Agency, Pakistan. Sci. Res. Essays, 2011, 10, 2164-2173.
[28]
Lans, C.; Turner, N.; Khan, T. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada. Parasitol. Res., 2008, 4, 889.
[29]
Nychas, G. Natural antimicrobials from plants. In: New Methods of Food Preservation; Springer: Bostan, MA, 1995; pp. 58-89.
[30]
Ventola, C.L. The antibiotic resistance crisis: Part 1: Causes and threats. Pharm. Ther., 2015, 4, 277.
[31]
Khan, A.M.; Qureshi, R.A.; Gilani, S.A.; Ullah, F. Antimicrobial activity of selected medicinal plants of Margalla Hills, Islamabad, Pakistan. J. Med. Plants Res., 2011, 18, 4665-4670.
[32]
Calvo, J.; Martínez-Martínez, L. Mecanismos de acción de los antimicrobianos. Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin., 2009, 1, 44-52.
[33]
Newton, S.M.; Lau, C.; Gurcha, S.S.; Besra, G.S.; Wright, C.W. The evaluation of forty-three plant species for in vitro antimycobacterial activities; isolation of active constituents from Psoralea corylifolia and Sanguinaria canadensis. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2002, 1, 57-67.
[34]
Quinlan, F. A note upon the use of the mullein plant in the treatment of pulmonary consumption. Brit. Med. J, 1883, 1152, 149.
[35]
Williamson, E.M.; Evans, F.J.; Wren, R. Potter’s New Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. Walden, Essex: Saffron Walden, 1988.
[36]
Grieve, M. A Modern Herbal; Tiger Books International: London, 1994.
[37]
Worrall, G. Acute bronchitis. Can. Fam. Phys., 2008, 2, 238-239.
[38]
Kumar, A.C.N. Role of microbes in human health. Appl. Microbiol. Open Access, 2017, 3(2), 18.
[39]
Kumar, B.; Vijayakumar, M.; Govindarajan, R.; Pushpangadan, P. Ethnopharmacological approaches to wound healing. Exploring medicinal plants of India. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 2, 103-113.
[40]
Süntar, I.; Tatlı, I.I.; Akkol, E.K.; Keleş, H.; Kahraman, Ç.; Akdemir, Z. An ethnopharmacological study on Verbascum species: From conventional wound healing use to scientific verification. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2010, 2, 408-413.
[41]
Sohrabi-Haghdost, R.V.H.; Safarmashaei, S. Comparison of in-vivo wound healing activity of Verbascum thapsus flower extract with zinc oxide on experimental wound model in rabbits. Adv. Environ. Biol., 2011, 7, 1501-1509.
[42]
Korkina, L.G.; Mikhal’chik, E.; Suprun, M.V.; Pastore, S.; Dal Toso, R. Molecular mechanisms underlying wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties of naturally occurring biotechnologically produced phenylpropanoid glycosides. Cell. Mol. Biol., 2007, 5, 84-91.
[43]
Halliwell, B. Antioxidants in human health and disease. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 1996, 1, 33-50.
[44]
Kumar, R.; Badere, R.; Singh, S.B. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from trans Himalayan medicinal plants. Pharmacogn. J., 2010, 17, 66-69.
[45]
Parry, J.; Hao, Z.; Luther, M.; Su, L.; Zhou, K.; Yu, L.L. Characterization of cold-pressed onion, parsley, cardamom, mullein, roasted pumpkin, and milk thistle seed oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 2006, 10, 847-854.
[46]
Ota, M.; Wada, G.; Aidzu, Y. Antioxidants containing Verbascum plant extracts and cosmetics containing the extracts. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho., JP Patent JP 11171723. 1999.
[47]
Lapornik, B.; Prošek, M.; Wondra, A.G. Comparison of extracts prepared from plant by-products using different solvents and extraction time. J. Food Eng., 2005, 2, 214-222.
[48]
McCune, L.M.; Johns, T. Antioxidant activity in medicinal plants associated with the symptoms of diabetes mellitus used by the indigenous peoples of the North American boreal forest. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2002, 2, 197-205.
[49]
Intelisano, J. Food supplement/herbal composition for health enhancement. U.S. Patent, 6440448B1, 2002.
[50]
Kogje, K.; Jagdale, V.; Dudhe, S.; Phanikumar, G.; Badere, R. Antioxidant property and phenolic compounds of few important plants from Trans-Himalayan regions of North India. J. Herb. Medi. Toxicol., 2010, 2, 145-151.
[51]
Joachims, H.Z.; Segal, J.; Golz, A.; Netzer, A.; Goldenberg, D. Antioxidants in treatment of idiopathic sudden hearing loss. Otol. Neurotol., 2003, 4, 572-575.
[52]
Zaknun, D.; Schroecksnadel, S.; Kurz, K.; Fuchs, D. Potential role of antioxidant food supplements, preservatives and colorants in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol., 2012, 2, 113-124.
[53]
Bhaumik, G.; Srivastava, K.; Selvamurthy, W.; Purkayastha, S. The role of free radicals in cold injuries. Int. J. Biometeorol., 1995, 4, 171-175.
[54]
Reimund, E. The free radical flux theory of sleep. Med. Hypoth., 1994, 4, 231-233.
[55]
Vaziri, N.D. Roles of oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy in chronic kidney disease and hypertension. Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens., 2004, 1, 93-99.
[56]
Funes, L.; Fernández-Arroyo, S.; Laporta, O.; Pons, A.; Roche, E.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A.; Micol, V. Correlation between plasma antioxidant capacity and verbascoside levels in rats after oral administration of lemon verbena extract. Food Chem., 2009, 4, 589-598.
[57]
Jin, L.; Xue, H.Y.; Jin, L.J.; Li, S.Y.; Xu, Y.P. Antioxidant and pancreas-protective effect of aucubin on rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2008, 1, 162-167.
[58]
Ashokkumar, P.; Sudhandiran, G. Protective role of luteolin on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense against azoxymethane-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis. Biomed. Pharmacother., 2008, 9, 590-597.
[59]
Babar, M.; Najam-us-Sahar, S.; Ashraf, M.; Kazi, A. Antiviral drug therapy-exploiting medicinal plants. J. Antivir. Antiretrovir., 2013, 5(2), 28-36.
[60]
Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Jha, P.; Chaudhary, R.; Bhattarai, S.; Gewali, M.; Karmacharya, N.; Hipper, M.; Lindequist, U. Antiviral activity of some plants used in Nepalese traditional medicine. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2009, 4, 517-522.
[61]
Escobar, F.M.; Sabini, M.C.; Zanon, S.M.; Tonn, C.E.; Sabini, L.I. Antiviral effect and mode of action of methanolic extract of Verbascum thapsus L. on pseudorabies virus (strain RC/79). Nat. Prod. Res., 2012, 17, 1621-1625.
[62]
McCutcheon, A.; Roberts, T.; Gibbons, E.; Ellis, S.; Babiuk, L.; Hancock, R.; Towers, G. Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants. J. Ethnopharmacol., 1995, 2, 101-110.
[63]
Mehrotra, R.; Ahmed, B.; Vishwakarma, R.; Thakur, R. Verbacoside: A new luteolin glycoside from Verbascum thapsus. J. Nat. Prod., 1989, 3, 640-643.
[64]
Zanon, S.M.; Ceriatti, F.S.; Rovera, M.; Sabini, L.J.; Ramos, B.A. Search for antiviral activity of certain medicinal plants from Cordoba, Argentina. Rev. Latin. Am. Microbiol. Mexico, 1999, 2, 59-62.
[65]
Chen, J.L.; Blanc, P.; Stoddart, C.A.; Bogan, M.; Rozhon, E.J.; Parkinson, N.; Ye, Z.; Cooper, R.; Balick, M.; Nanakorn, W. New iridoids from the medicinal plant Barleria prionitis with potent activity against respiratory syncytial virus. J. Nat. Prod., 1998, 10, 1295-1297.
[66]
Chang, I.M. Antiviral activity of aucubin against hepatitis B virus replication. Phytother. Res., 1997, 3, 189-192.
[67]
Suh, N.J.; Shim, C.K.; Lee, M.H.; Kim, S.K.; Chang, I.M. Pharmacokinetic study of an iridoid glucoside: Aucubin. Pharm. Res., 1991, 8, 1059-1063.
[68]
Wang, H.; Oo Khor, T.; Shu, L.; Su, Z.Y.; Fuentes, F.; Lee, J.H.; Tony Kong, A.N. Plants vs. cancer: A review on natural phytochemicals in preventing and treating cancers and their druggability. Anti-Cancer Agent. Med. Chem., 2012, 10, 1281-1305.
[69]
Lin, L.T.; Liu, L.T.; Chiang, L.C.; Lin, C.C. In vitro anti‐hepatoma activity of fifteen natural medicines from Canada. Phytother. Res., 2002, 5, 440-444.
[70]
Cyr, B. Methods and therapeutic compositions comprising plant extracts for the treatment of cancer. U.S. Patent, 20090004302 A1 2009.
[71]
Wang, D.; DuBois, R.N. Eicosanoids and cancer. Nat. Rev. Cancer, 2010, 3, 181-183.
[72]
Kawamo, H.; Hagiwara, Y.; Mizuno, O.; Kumakura, M. Isolation of an antihistamine flavone from a plant, Verbascum thapsus, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP Patent 63227584, 1988.
[73]
Henderson, J.W. Role of leukotrienes in asthma. Ann. Allergy, 1994, 3, 272-278.
[74]
Turker, A.U.; Camper, N. Biological activity of common mullein, a medicinal plant. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2002, 82(2-3), 117-125.
[75]
Ren, W.; Qiao, Z.; Wang, H.; Zhu, L.; Zhang, L. Flavonoids: Promising anticancer agents. Med. Res. Rev., 2003, 4, 519-534.
[76]
Harborne, A. Phytochemical Methods a Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis; Springer Science & Business Media: Netherlands, 1998.
[77]
Kahraman, C.; Akdemir, Z.S.; Tatli, I.I. Promising cytotoxic activity profile, biological activities and phytochemical screening of Verbascum L. Species. Med. Aromat. Plant Sci. Biotechnol., 2012, 6, 63-75.
[78]
Costa, G.T.; Abreu, G.C.; Guimaraes, A.B.; Vasconcelos, P.R.; Guimaraes, S.B. Fructo-oligosaccharide effects on serum cholesterol levels. An overview. Acta Cir. Bras., 2015, 5, 366-370.
[79]
Pardo, F.; Perich, F.; Torres, R.; Delle Monache, F. Phytotoxic iridoid glucosides from the roots of Verbascum thapsus. J. Chem. Ecol., 1998, 4, 645-653.
[80]
Talebi, A.A.; Rakhshani, E.; Fathipour, Y.; Starý, P.; Tomanović, Ž.; Rajabi-Mazhar, N. Aphids and their parasitoids (Hym., Braconidae: Aphidiinae) associated with medicinal plants in Iran. Am. Eur. J. Sustain. Agr., 2009, 2, 205-219.
[81]
Webster, C. Clinical Pharmacology. Illustrated ed.; Teton New- Media , 2001.
[82]
Paszkiewicz‐Gadek, A.; Grochowska, K.; Gałasiński, W. Effect of the aqueous extract and saponin fraction from the flowers of Verbascum thapsiforme on protein biosynthesis in a rat liver ribosomal system. Phytother. Res., 1990, 5, 177-181.
[83]
Kupeli, E.; Tatli, I.I.; Akdemir, Z.S.; Yesilada, E. Bioassay-guided isolation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive glycoterpenoids from the flowers of Verbascum lasianthum Boiss. ex Bentham. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 3, 444-450.
[84]
Mors, W.B.; Do Nascimento, M.C.; Pereira, B.M.R.; Pereira, N.A. Plant natural products active against snake bite the molecular approach. Phytochemistry, 2000, 6, 627-642.
[85]
Lucas, S.M.; Rothwell, N.J.; Gibson, R.M. The role of inflammation in CNS injury and disease. Br. J. Pharmacol., 2006, 147(S1), S232-S240.
[86]
Itzkowitz, S.H.; Yio, X. Inflammation and cancer IV. Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: The role of inflammation. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol., 2004, 287(1), G7-G17.
[87]
Parker, I.M.; Rodriguez, J.; Loik, M.E. An evolutionary approach to understanding the biology of invasions: Local adaptation and general‐purpose genotypes in the weed Verbascum thapsus. Conserv. Biol., 2003, 1, 59-72.
[88]
Morina, F.; Jovanovic, L.; Mojovic, M.; Vidovic, M.; Pankovic, D.; Jovanovic, V.S. Zinc‐induced oxidative stress in Verbascum thapsus is caused by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species and quinhydrone in the cell wall. Physiol. Plant., 2010, 3, 209-224.
[89]
Ali, N.; Shah, S.W.A.; Shah, I.; Ahmed, G.; Ghias, M.; Khan, I.; Ali, W. Anthelmintic and relaxant activities of Verbascum thapsus Mullein. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2012, 1, 29-3.
[90]
Pal, S.L.; Mohanta, U.J.G.; Manna, P. Pelagia Research Library. Der Pharmacia Sinica 1., 2013, 40-46.
[91]
Kahraman, C.; Ekizoglu, M.; Kart, D.; Akdemir, Z.Ş.; Tatli, I.I. Antimicrobial activity of some Verbascum species growing in Turkey. FABAD J. Pharm. Sci, 2011, 36, 11-15.
[92]
Alba, C.; Hufbauer, R. Exploring the potential for climatic factors, herbivory, and co-occurring vegetation to shape performance in native and introduced populations of Verbascum thapsus. Biol. Inv., 2012, 12, 2505-2518.
[93]
Hussain, H.; Aziz, S.; Miana, G.A.; Ahmad, V.U.; Anwar, S.; Ahmed, I. Minor chemical constituents of Verbascum thapsus. Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 2009, 2, 124-126.
[94]
Warashina, T.; Miyase, T.; Ueno, A. Phenylethanoid and lignan glycosides from Verbascum thapsus. Phytochemistry, 1992, 3, 961-965.
[95]
Milne, R.I.; Abbott, R.J. The origin and evolution of tertiary relict floras. Adv. Bot. Res., 2002, 38, 281-314.
[96]
Hattori, S.; Shiroya, T. The sugars in the seeds and seedlings of Pinus thunbergii. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 1951, 1, 121-134.
[97]
Seifert, K.; Schmidt, J.; Lien, N.; Johne, S. Iridoide aus verbascum-arten. Plant Med., 1985, 5, 409-411.
[98]
Stavri, M.; Mathew, K.; Gibbons, S. Antimicrobial constituents of Scrophularia deserti. Phytochemistry, 2006, 14, 1530-1533.
[99]
Zhao, Y.L.; Wang, S.F.; Li, Y.; He, Q.X.; Liu, K.C.; Yang, Y.P.; Li, X.L. Isolation of chemical constituents from the aerial parts of Verbascum thapsus and their antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities. Arch. Pharm. Res., 2011, 5, 703-707.
[100]
Kuroda, M.; Iwabuchi, K.; Mimaki, Y. Triterpene tetraglycosides from the flowers of Verbascum thapsus. Jpn. J. Pharmacogn., 2012, 2, 91-92.
[101]
Liu, Bing. C.Y.; Guoning, G.; Haibo, Y. GC-MS analysis of volatile components of Verbascum based on retention index. Amino Acids Biol. Res, 2013, 2013, 918406.
[102]
Dzubak, P.; Hajduch, M.; Vydra, D.; Hustova, A.; Kvasnica, M.; Biedermann, D.; Markova, L.; Urban, M.; Sarek, J. Pharmacological activities of natural triterpenoids and their therapeutic implications. Nat. Prod. Rep., 2006, 3, 394-411.
[103]
Nijveldt, R.J.; Van Nood, E.; Van Hoorn, D.E.; Boelens, P.G.; Van Norren, K.; Van Leeuwen, P.A. Flavonoids: A review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 2001, 4, 418-425.
[104]
Kalinina, S.A.; Elkina, O.V.; Kalinin, D.V.; Syropyatov, B.Y.; Dolzhenko, A.V. Diuretic activity and toxicity of some Verbascum nigrum extracts and fractions. Pharm. Biol., 2014, 2, 191-198.
[105]
Souleles, C.; Geronikaki, A. Flavonoids from Verbascum thapsus. Sci. Pharm., 1989, 1, 59-61.
[106]
Jia, C.; Shi, H.; Jin, W.; Zhang, K.; Jiang, Y.; Zhao, M.; Tu, P. Metabolism of echinacoside, a good antioxidant, in rats: Isolation and identification of its biliary metabolites. Drug Metab. Dispos., 2009, 37(2), 431-438.
[107]
Hattori, S.; Hatanaka, S. Oligosaccharides in Verbascum thapsus L. Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 1958, 71(845-846), 417-424.
[108]
Adesunloye, B.A. Acute renal failure due to the herbal remedy CKLS. Am. J. Med., 2003, 6, 506-507.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 9
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2019
Page: [158 - 171]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/2210315508666180821153531
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 43
HTML: 4
EPUB: 1