Background: Scarcity in frequency availability for communication systems prompts a
dire need to explore technologies to avail existing available spectrum much more efficiently. Cognitive
Radio Network (CRN) technology is one such promising solution. This technology permits the
unlicensed users or Secondary Users (SU) to utilize the spectrum allocated to licensed users (Primary
Users), when not in use by Primary Users (PU). But, SUs must do spectrum handoff whenever a
PU wants its channel again for its own use. Also, the SUs continuously sense the channels to identify
an idle channel. Error in the sensing channel is possible.
Method: Here, spectrum sensing errors are analyzed for non-uniform unlicensed users, in cognitive
radio ad-hoc network. A detection theory is put forth, to sense error. In addition, it is possible that in
a network, SUs may not have the same amount of data packets to transmit.
Result: It leads to variation in the number of frames i.e. non-uniform distribution. This effect is
studied and a practical approach is proposed to calculate throughput. Average normalized SU
throughput is compared with a signal to noise ratio using random and pseudorandom channel selection
Conclusion: Thus, the simulation results are obtained and the effects are analyzed in the performance
of overall network. The proposed model can be duly made use of to more practical network scenarios.