Background: Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that can result in destruction of the
tooth attachment apparatus. Therefore, periodontal tissue regeneration is currently an important focus of
research in the field. Approaches using stem cells and reprogrammed cells, such as induced pluripotent
stem cells (iPSCs) or trans-differentiated cells, represent the cutting edge in periodontal regeneration,
and have led to many trials for their clinical application.
Objectives and Results: In this review, we consider all available stem cell sources, methods to obtain
the cells, their capability to differentiate into the desired cells, and the extent of their utilization in
periodontal regeneration. In addition, we introduce the new concepts of using iPSCs and transdifferentiated
cells for periodontal regeneration. Finally, we discuss the promise of tissue engineering
for improving cell therapy outcomes for periodontal regeneration.
Conclusions: Despite their limitations, iPSCs and trans-differentiated cells may be promising cell
sources for periodontal tissue regeneration. Further collaborative investigation is required for the effective
and safe application of these cells in combination with tissue engineering elements, like scaffolds