Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are a small population of tumor-initiating cells that express stem cell-associated markers. In recent years, their properties and mechanisms of regulation have become the focus of intense research due to their intrinsic resistance to conventional cancer therapies. This review describes breast cancer stem cell origin, signaling pathways involved in self-renewal, such as Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog, biomarkers linked to stemness, and the role of sex steroid hormones in BCSC regulation.
Keywords: Breast cancer, breast cancer stem cells, biomarkers, signaling pathways, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor.
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