Gynaecological Cancer Diagnostics: 99mTc-Cisplatin Complex as a Future Approach for Early, Prompt and Efficient Diagnosis of Gynaecological Cancer

Author(s): Ayesha Sana , Rashid Rasheed , Asma Rafique , Tooba Khaliq , Nazish Jabeen , Ghulam Murtaza* .

Journal Name: Current Medical Imaging

Volume 15 , Issue 7 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Gynaecological cancers (GCCa) are common and have a significant mortality rate all over the world. Early diagnosis of cancer can play a key role in the treatment and survival of a patient. Identification, staging, treatment, and monitoring of gynaecological malignancies is being done successfully by nuclear medicines.

Discussion: Currently, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) centered imaging techniques are being developed for use in patients with GCCa as a diagnostic tool. The present work elucidates several clinical studies on the use of radiopharmaceuticals, based on their effectiveness, in the early detection and management of GCCa. It also highlights the importance of reconsidering the biology for nuclear imaging as a future modality for early, rapid and efficient diagnosis of gynecological cancers. This comprehensive review is a part of our study designed to detect gynaecological cancers at an early stage using radionuclide complex, 99m Tc-Cisplatin.

Conclusion: This article summarizes the significance of radioscintigraphy such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and PET for identification of GCCa in the experimental humans and animals.

Keywords: Diagnosis, gynaecological cancers, mortality rate, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, staging.

[1]
Agarwal R, Kaye SB. Prognostic factors in ovarian cancer: how close are we to a complete picture? Ann Oncol 2005; 16(1): 4-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdi104] [PMID: 15598928]
[2]
Reade CJ, McVey RM, Tone AA, et al. The fallopian tube as the origin of high grade serous ovarian cancer: review of a paradigm shift. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2014; 36(2): 133-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30659-9] [PMID: 24518912]
[3]
McGuire WP, Hoskins WJ, Brady MF, et al. Cyclophosphamide and cisplatin compared with paclitaxel and cisplatin in patients with stage III and stage IV ovarian cancer. N Engl J Med 1996; 334(1): 1-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199601043340101] [PMID: 7494563]
[4]
Herfs M, Parra-Herran C, Howitt BE, et al. Cervical squamocolumnar junction-specific markers define distinct, clinically relevant subsets of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Am J Surg Pathol 2013; 37(9): 1311-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0b013e3182989ee2] [PMID: 24076771]
[5]
Herfs M, Yamamoto Y, Laury A, et al. A discrete population of squamocolumnar junction cells implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012; 109(26): 10516-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1202684109] [PMID: 22689991]
[6]
Bokhman JV. Two pathogenetic types of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol 1983; 15(1): 10-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-8258(83)90111-7] [PMID: 6822361]
[7]
Bast RC Jr. Early detection of ovarian cancer: new technologies in pursuit of a disease that is neither common nor rare. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 2004; 115: 233-47.
[PMID: 17060970]
[8]
Ashrafi SA, Hosseinimehr SJ, Varmira K, Abedi SM. Radioimmunotherapy with (1)(3) (1)I-bevacizumab as a specific molecule for cells with overexpression of the vascular endothelial growth factor. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2012; 27(7): 420-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2012.1224] [PMID: 22690909]
[9]
Burke WM, Orr J, Leitao M, et al. Endometrial cancer: a review and current management strategies: part I. Gynecol Oncol 2014; 134(2): 385-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2014.05.018] [PMID: 24905773]
[10]
Malpica A, Deavers MT, Lu K, et al. Grading ovarian serous carcinoma using a two-tier system. Am J Surg Pathol 2004; 28(4): 496-504.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000478-200404000-00009] [PMID: 15087669]
[11]
Gilks CB. Sub classification of ovarian surface epithelial tumors based on correlation of histologic and molecular pathologic data. Int J Gynecol Pathol 2004; 23(3): 200-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.pgp.0000130446.84670.93] [PMID: 15213595]
[12]
Singer G, Kurman RJ, Chang HW, Cho SK, Shih IeM. Diverse tumorigenic pathways in ovarian serous carcinoma. Am J Pathol 2002; 160(4): 1223-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62549-7] [PMID: 11943707]
[13]
Arnold N, Hagele L, Walz L, et al. Overrepresentation of 3q and 8q material and loss of 18q material are recurrent findings in advanced human ovarian cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1996; 16(1): 46-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2264(199605)16:1<46:AID-GCC7>3.0.CO;2-3] [PMID: 9162197]
[14]
Kiechle M, Jacobsen A, Schwarz-Boeger U, Hedderich J, Pfisterer J, Arnold N. Comparative genomic hybridization detects genetic imbalances in primary ovarian carcinomas as correlated with grade of differentiation. Cancer 2001; 91(3): 534-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(20010201)91:3<534:AID-CNCR1031>3.0.CO;2-T] [PMID: 11169935]
[15]
Moreno-Bueno G, Gamallo C, Pérez-Gallego L, de Mora JC, Suárez A, Palacios J. beta-Catenin expression pattern, beta-catenin gene mutations, and microsatellite instability in endometrioid ovarian carcinomas and synchronous endometrial carcinomas. Diagn Mol Pathol 2001; 10(2): 116-22.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00019606-200106000-00008] [PMID: 11385321]
[16]
Fuchs SY, Ougolkov AV, Spiegelman VS, Minamoto T. Oncogenic beta-catenin signaling networks in colorectal cancer. Cell Cycle 2005; 4(11): 1522-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.4.11.2129] [PMID: 16258275]
[17]
Harris TJ, Peifer M. Decisions, decisions: beta-catenin chooses between adhesion and transcription. Trends Cell Biol 2005; 15(5): 234-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2005.03.002] [PMID: 15866026]
[18]
Rosen DG, Yang G, Liu G, et al. Ovarian cancer: pathology, biology, and disease models. Front Biosci 2009; 14: 2089-102.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2741/3364] [PMID: 19273186]
[19]
Tan DSP, Kaye S. Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma: a continuing enigma. J Clin Pathol 2007; 60(4): 355-60.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.2006.040030] [PMID: 17018684]
[20]
Skírnisdóttir I, Seidal T, Karlsson MG, Sorbe B. Clinical and biological characteristics of clear cell carcinomas of the ovary in FIGO stages I-II. Int J Oncol 2005; 26(1): 177-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.26.1.177] [PMID: 15586238]
[21]
Okuda T, Otsuka J, Sekizawa A, et al. p53 mutations and overexpression affect prognosis of ovarian endometrioid cancer but not clear cell cancer. Gynecol Oncol 2003; 88(3): 318-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-8258(02)00149-X] [PMID: 12648581]
[22]
Bhatla N, Aoki D, Sharma DN, Sankaranarayanan R. Cancer of the cervix uteri. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2018; 143(Suppl. 2): 22-36.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.12611] [PMID: 30306584]
[23]
Landoni F, Maneo A, Colombo A, et al. Randomised study of radical surgery versus radiotherapy for stage Ib-IIa cervical cancer. Lancet 1997; 350(9077): 535-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(97)02250-2] [PMID: 9284774]
[24]
Beyersdorff D, Bahnsen J, Frischbier HJ. Nodal involvement in cancer of the uterine cervix: value of lymphography and MRI. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 1995; 16(4): 274-7.
[PMID: 7556283]
[25]
Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015; 136(5): E359-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.29210] [PMID: 25220842]
[26]
Brinton LA, Felix AS, McMeekin DS, et al. Etiologic heterogeneity in endometrial cancer: evidence from a Gynecologic Oncology Group trial. Gynecol Oncol 2013; 129(2): 277-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.02.023] [PMID: 23485770]
[27]
Zannoni GF, Vellone VG, Arena V, et al. Does high-grade endometrioid carcinoma (grade 3 FIGO) belong to type I or type II endometrial cancer? A clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical study. Virchows Arch 2010; 457(1): 27-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-010-0939-z] [PMID: 20552366]
[28]
Kandoth C, Schultz N, Cherniack AD, et al. Integrated genomic characterization of endometrial carcinoma. Nature 2013; 497(7447): 67-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12113] [PMID: 23636398]
[29]
Fishman DA, Cohen L, Blank SV, et al. The role of ultrasound evaluation in the detection of early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192(4): 1214-21.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2005.01.041] [PMID: 15846205]
[30]
Hricak H, Rubinstein LV, Gherman GM, Karstaedt N. MR imaging evaluation of endometrial carcinoma: results of an NCI cooperative study. Radiology 1991; 179(3): 829-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiology.179.3.2028000] [PMID: 2028000]
[31]
Connor JP, Andrews JI, Anderson B, Buller RE. Computed tomography in endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 95(5): 692-6.
[PMID: 10775731]
[32]
Scholler N, Urban N. CA125 in ovarian cancer. Biomarkers Med 2007; 1(4): 513-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/17520363.1.4.513] [PMID: 20477371]
[33]
Kowalsky RJ, Falen SW. Radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Pharmacy and Nuclear MedicineWashington DC. Published by American Pharmacist Association 2004; pp. 256-77.
[34]
Mahmood A, Jones AG. Handbook of Radiopharmaceuticals. Washington, DC: John Wiley & Sons 2003; pp. 323-62.
[35]
Tisato F, Bolzati C, Porchia M, Refosco F. Contribution of electrospray mass spectrometry for the characterization, design, and development of nitrido technetium and rhenium heterocomplexes as potential radiopharmaceuticals. Mass Spectrom Rev 2004; 23(5): 309-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mas.20000] [PMID: 15264232]
[36]
Haberkorn U, Eisenhut M. Molecular imaging and therapy-a programme based on the development of new biomolecules. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2005; 32(12): 1354-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-005-1924-7] [PMID: 16133375]
[37]
Cleeren F, Lecina J, Ahamed M, et al. Al18F-labeling of heat-sensitive biomolecules for positron emission tomography imaging. Theranostics 2017; 7(11): 2924-39.
[38]
Abedi SM, Mardanshahi A, Shahhosseini R, Hosseinimehr SJ. Nuclear medicine for imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer. Future Oncol 2016; 12(9): 1165-77.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon.16.19] [PMID: 26984362]
[39]
Liu S, Ziegler MC, Edwards DS. Radio-LC-MS for the characterization of 99mTc-labeled bioconjugates. Bioconjug Chem 2000; 11(1): 113-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bc990111r] [PMID: 10639093]
[40]
Boswell CA, McQuade P, Weisman GR, Wong EH, Anderson CJ. Optimization of labeling and metabolite analysis of copper-64-labeled azamacrocyclic chelators by radio-LC-MS. Nucl Med Biol 2005; 32(1): 29-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2004.09.004] [PMID: 15691659]
[41]
Kieffer DM, Cleynhens BJ, Vanbilloen HP, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a technetium-99m(I)-tricarbonyl-labelled phenyltropane derivative. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2006; 16(2): 382-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.09.071] [PMID: 16271471]
[42]
Fuchs SY, Ougolkov AV, Spiegelman VS, Minamoto T. Oncogenic beta-catenin signaling networks in colorectal cancer. Cell Cycle 2005; 4(11): 1522-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.4.11.2129] [PMID: 16258275]
[43]
Bragg DG, Hricak H. Imaging in gynecologic malignancies. Cancer 1993; 71(4)(Suppl.): 1648-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.2820710431] [PMID: 8431900]
[44]
Lewis E. The use and abuse of imaging in gynecologic cancer. Cancer 1987; 60(8)(Suppl.): 1993-2009.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19901015)60:8+<1993:AID-CNCR2820601511>3.0.CO;2-V] [PMID: 3308061]
[45]
Buy JN, Ghossain MA, Sciot C, et al. Epithelial tumors of the ovary: CT findings and correlation with US. Radiology 1991; 178(3): 811-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiology.178.3.1994423] [PMID: 1994423]
[46]
Magnani P, Fazio F, Grana C, et al. Diagnosis of persistent ovarian carcinoma with three-step immunoscintigraphy. Br J Cancer 2000; 82(3): 616-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/bjoc.1999.0972] [PMID: 10682674]
[47]
Krag DN, Ford P, Smith L, et al. Clinical immunoscintigraphy of recurrent ovarian cancer with indium 111-labeled B72.3 monoclonal antibody. Arch Surg 1993; 128(7): 819-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1993.01420190115015] [PMID: 8317965]
[48]
Peltier P, Dutin JP, Chatal JF, et al. Usefulness of imaging ovarian cancer recurrence with In-111-labeled monoclonal antibody (OC 125) specific for CA 125 antigen. The INSERM Research Network (Nantes, Rennes, Reims, Vuillejuif, Saclay. Ann Oncol 1993; 4(4): 307-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.annonc.a058488] [PMID: 8518221]
[49]
Surwit EA, Childers JM, Krag DN, et al. Clinical assessment of 111In-CYT-103 immunoscintigraphy in ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol 1993; 48(3): 285-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/gyno.1993.1051] [PMID: 8462896]
[50]
Kajanti MJ, Mäntylä MM. Radioimmuno-scintigraphy in patients with ovarian cancer. Acta Oncol 1991; 38(5): 629-34.
[PMID: 1892681]
[51]
Crippa F, Buraggi GL, Di Re E, et al. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of ovarian cancer with the MOv18 monoclonal antibody. Eur J Cancer 1991; 27(6): 724-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5379(91)90174-C] [PMID: 1829912]
[52]
Massuger LF, Kenemans P, Claessens RA, et al. Immunoscintigraphy of ovarian cancer with indium-111-labeled OV-TL 3 F(ab’)2 monoclonal antibody. J Nucl Med 1990; 31(11): 1802-10.
[PMID: 2230993]
[53]
Alexander C, Villena-Heinsen CE, Trampert L. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of ovarian tumors with technetium‐99m labelled monoclonal antibody‐170: first clinical experiences. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 1995; 22(7): 645-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01254566]
[54]
Lieberman G, Buscombe JR, Hilson AJ, Reid WM, Thakrar D, Maclean AB. Preoperative diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma with a novel monoclonal antibody. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 183(3): 534-40.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mob.2000.105938] [PMID: 10992170]
[55]
Kalofonos HP, Karamouzis MV, Epenetos AA. Radioimmunoscintigraphy in patients with ovarian cancer. Acta Oncol 2001; 40(5): 549-57.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/028418601750444079] [PMID: 11669325]
[56]
Li F, Zhang Z, Cheng T, et al. SPECT imaging of interleukin-6 receptor in ovarian tumor xenografts with a novel radiotracer of 99mTc-HYNIC-Aca-LSLITRL. Amino Acids 2016; 48(1): 91-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-015-2060-8] [PMID: 26255282]
[57]
Sugimoto K, Nishimoto N, Kishimoto T, Yoshizaki K, Nishimura T. Imaging of lesions in a murine rheumatoid arthritis model with a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody. Ann Nucl Med 2005; 19(4): 261-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02984617] [PMID: 16097634]
[58]
Huhtala T, Laakkonen P, Sallinen H, Ylä-Herttuala S, Närvänen A. In vivo SPECT/CT imaging of human orthotopic ovarian carcinoma xenografts with 111In-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Nucl Med Biol 2010; 37(8): 957-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2010.03.001] [PMID: 21055627]
[59]
Lub-de Hooge MN, Kosterink JG, Perik PJ, et al. Preclinical characterisation of 111In-DTPA-trastuzumab. Br J Pharmacol 2004; 143(1): 99-106.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705915] [PMID: 15289297]
[60]
Milenic DE, Wong KJ, Baidoo KE. Targeting HER2: a report on the in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical data supporting trastuzumab as a radioimmunoconjugate for clinical trials. MAbs 2(5): 550-64.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/mabs.2.5.13054]
[61]
Tang Y, Scollard D, Chen P, Wang J, Holloway C, Reilly RM. Imaging of HER2/neu expression in BT-474 human breast cancer xenografts in athymic mice using [(99m)Tc]-HYNIC-trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab fragments. Nucl Med Commun 2005; 26(5): 427-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006231-200505000-00006] [PMID: 15838425]
[62]
van Kruchten M, de Vries EF, Arts HJ. Assessment of estrogen receptor expression in epithelial ovarian cancer patients using 16α-18F-fluoro-17β-estradiol PET/CT. J Nucl Med 2015; 56(1): 1-5.
[63]
Hauspy J, Beiner M, Harley I, Ehrlich L, Rasty G, Covens A. Sentinel lymph node in vulvar cancer. Cancer 2007; 110(5): 1015-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22874] [PMID: 17626265]
[64]
Ayhan A, Celik H, Dursun P, Gultekin M, Yuce K. Prognostic and therapeutic importance of lymphadenectomy in gynecological cancers. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 2004; 25(3): 279-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-00009577-200403000-00014] [PMID: 15171301]
[65]
Silva LB, Silva-Filho AL, Traiman P, et al. Sentinel node detection in cervical cancer with (99m)Tc-phytate. Gynecol Oncol 2005; 97(2): 588-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2005.02.014] [PMID: 15863164]
[66]
Martínez-Palones JM, Gil-Moreno A, Pérez-Benavente MA, Roca I, Xercavins J. Intraoperative sentinel node identification in early stage cervical cancer using a combination of radiolabeled albumin injection and isosulfan blue dye injection. Gynecol Oncol 2004; 92(3): 845-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2003.11.028] [PMID: 14984951]
[67]
Lécuru F, Mathevet P, Querleu D, et al. Bilateral negative sentinel nodes accurately predict absence of lymph node metastasis in early cervical cancer: results of the SENTICOL study. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29(13): 1686-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2010.32.0432] [PMID: 21444878]
[68]
Altgassen C, Hertel H, Brandstädt A, Köhler C, Dürst M, Schneider A. Multicenter validation study of the sentinel lymph node concept in cervical cancer: AGO Study Group. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26(18): 2943-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.13.8933] [PMID: 18565880]
[69]
Solima E, Martinelli F, Ditto A, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of sentinel node in endometrial cancer by using hysteroscopic injection of radiolabeled tracer. Gynecol Oncol 2012; 126(3): 419-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.05.025] [PMID: 22659192]
[70]
Nayak TK, Hathaway HJ, Ramesh C, et al. Preclinical development of a neutral, estrogen receptor-targeted, tridentate 99mTc(I)-estradiol-pyridin-2-yl hydrazine derivative for imaging of breast and endometrial cancers. J Nucl Med 2008; 49(6): 978-86.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.107.048546] [PMID: 18483091]
[71]
Dasari S, Tchounwou PB. Cisplatin in cancer therapy: molecular mechanisms of action. Eur J Pharmacol 2014; 740: 364-78.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.07.025] [PMID: 25058905]
[72]
Agarwal R, Kaye SB. Ovarian cancer: strategies for overcoming resistance to chemotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2003; 3(7): 502-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrc1123] [PMID: 12835670]
[73]
Lynch HT, Casey MJ, Snyder CL, et al. Hereditary ovarian carcinoma: heterogeneity, molecular genetics, pathology, and management. Mol Oncol 2009; 3(2): 97-137.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molonc.2009.02.004] [PMID: 19383374]
[74]
Alizadehnohi M, Nabiuni M, Nazari Z, Safaeinejad Z, Irian S. The synergistic cytotoxic effect of cisplatin and honey bee venom on human ovarian cancer cell line A2780cp. J Venom Res 2012; 3: 22-7.
[PMID: 23301148]
[75]
Fields AL, Anderson PS, Goldberg GL, Safaeinejad Z, Irian S. Mature results of a phase II trial of concomitant cisplatin/pelvic radiotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. In: Gynaecology Oncology 1996; 61: 416-22.
[76]
Soares MA, Mattos JL, Pujatti PB, Leal AS, dos Santos WG, dos Santos RG. Evaluation of the synergetic radio-chemotherapy effects of the radio labelled cisplatin for the treatment of glioma. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 2012; 292: 61-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10967-011-1414-2]
[77]
Bodnar EN, Dikiy MP, Medvedeva EP. Photonuclear production and antitumor effect of radioactive cisplatin (195mPt). J Radioanal Nucl Chem 2015; 305(1): 133-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10967-015-4053-1]
[78]
Rozy K, Piyali C, Chadha VD. Radiolabeling of cisplatin and its biodistribution in an experimental model of lung carcinogenesis. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 2014; 33(1): 11-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/JEnvironPatholToxicolOncol.2014008013] [PMID: 24579806]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 7
Year: 2019
Page: [611 - 621]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1573405614666180809123233
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 15
HTML: 2
EPUB: 1