Molecular Mechanism of Aniline Induced Spleen Toxicity and Neuron Toxicity in Experimental Rat Exposure: A Review

Author(s): Pouran Makhdoumi, Hooshyar Hossini*, Ghulam Md Ashraf *, Mojtaba Limoee.

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 17 , Issue 3 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Aniline exposure leads to neuron and spleen toxicity specifically and makes diverse neurological effects and sarcoma that is defined by splenomegaly, hyperplasia, and fibrosis and tumors formation at the end. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of aniline-induced spleen toxicity is not understood well, previous studies have represented that aniline exposure results in iron overload and initiation of oxidative/nitrosative disorder stress and oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA subsequently, in the spleen. Elevated expression of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and phosphorylation of pRB protein along with increases in A, B and CDK1 as a cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclins, and reduce in CDK inhibitors (p21 and p27) could be critical in cell cycle regulation, which contributes to tumorigenic response after aniline exposure. Aniline-induced splenic toxicity is correlated to oxidative DNA damage and initiation of DNA glycosylases expression (OGG1, NEIL1/2, NTH1, APE1 and PNK) for removal of oxidative DNA lesions in rat. Oxidative stress causes transcriptional up-regulation of fibrogenic/inflammatory factors (cytokines, IL- 1, IL-6 and TNF-α) via induction of nuclear factor-kappa B, AP-1 and redox-sensitive transcription factors, in aniline treated-rats. The upstream signalling events as phosphorylation of IκB kinases (IKKα and IKKβ) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) could potentially be the causes of activation of NF-κB and AP-1. All of these events could initiate a fibrogenic and/or tumorigenic response in the spleen. The spleen toxicity of aniline is studied more and the different mechanisms are suggested. This review summarizes those events following aniline exposure that induce spleen toxicity and neurotoxicity.

Keywords: Aniline, oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, spleen toxicity, neurology, pharmacology.

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