Background: Nanoparticles (NPs) or nanomaterials being used widely in various fields have
occupied prime importance in biomedical sciences, owing to their unique size dependent properties
which make them superior to bulk materials. One of the major applications of NPs in biomedical field
is their therapeutic application including antimicrobial activity.
Objective: It is already well known that certain NPs such as silver, zinc oxide, copper, iron etc. bears significant
antimicrobial activity as they release metal ions which subsequently generate reactive oxygen
species (ROS), consequently demonstrating potential to be a better alternative to antibiotics and other antimicrobial
agents. Although some of these NPs have also been found to be effective against multi-drug
resistant (MDR) bacteria and correspondingly preventing the biofilm formation. Still resistance can be
developed towards these NPs owing to their repeated exposure. Therefore, it becomes pertinent to probe
NPs for their better antimicrobial efficacies by using surface functionalization strategies to enable them to
interact with some specific cells in order to augment the antimicrobial response.
Results: Thus present review focuses on the mode of action of NPs, their toxicity and colloidal stability,
shortcomings of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents towards MDR bacteria, and possible
outcomes of NPs functionalized with different agents.
Conclusion: In this review we describe functionalized NPs as an alternative for targeting MDR bacteria,
their mode of action and future directions that are necessary to move forward with this approach.