Background: The principal goal of this review is to provide a detailed study of various
modified zeolites as catalysts for the synthesis of diverse organic biologically active compounds. The
use of zeolites in organic synthesis is noteworthy since they are compatible with the reactants, ecofriendly,
non-toxic, non-corrosive, insoluble in many solvents, resistive at high temperatures, and reusable
with high yield and purity.
Methods: Zeolites are three dimensional structures of crystalline, micro porous, hydrated aluminosilicates
of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Primary building blocks of zeolites are the basic tetrahedral
anions, i.e. [SiO4]4- and [AlO4]5-. Based on the Si/Al ratios, zeolites are classified into three major divisions
and the composition ratios present in them can be altered. Molecules within the diverse zeolites
cavities can be trapped because of their electrostatic and Vander walls types of attractive forces.
Nanocrystalline zeolites have larger surface areas with internal surface porosity.
Results: As a result, an increase in the surface area of specific zeolites is possible and thus superior
adsorption of reactant molecules on its surface may take place. The whole structural orientation results
in characteristic catalytic property within the zeolite systems.
Conclusion: Greater catalytic activity is achieved with polyvalent ions rather than monovalent ions.
Interestingly, the yield of drug intermediates depends on various parameters of catalysts (i.e. zeolite
porosity, surface area, properties of doped metal ions/complexes, Si/Al ratio, number of Lewis and
Bronsted acid sites, etc.). Medium and large pore containing zeolite gives a higher yield of products in
comparison to zeolite that has a small pore. In addition, a zeolite with a higher surface area and higher
Si/Al ratio exhibits higher catalytic efficiency.