Cancer chemotherapies or antitumor agents mainly remain the backbone of current
treatment based on killing the rapidly dividing cancer cell such as tylophora alkaloids and
their analogues which have also demonstrated anticancer potential through diverse biological
pathways including regulation of the immune system. The introduction of durable clinically
effective monoclonal antibodies, however, unmasked a new era of cancer immunotherapies.
Therefore, the understanding of cancer pathogenesis will provide new possible treatment options,
including cancer immunotherapy and targeted agents. Combining cytotoxic agents and
immunotherapies may offer several unique advantages that are complementary to and potentially
synergistic with biologic modalities. Herein, we highlight the dynamic mechanism of
action of immune modulation in cancer and the immunological aspects of the orally active
antitumor agents tylophora alkaloids and their analogues. We also suggest that future cancer
treatments will rely on the development of combining tumor-targeted agents and biologic
Keywords: Tylophora alkaloids, inflammatory, chemotherapy, antiviral, immunotherapy, cancer.
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport