Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that microbiota play an important role in
host’s homeostasis. Thus far, researchers have mostly focused on the role of bacterial microbiota.
However, human gut is a habitat for several fungal species, which produce numerous metabolites. Furthermore,
various types of food and beverages are rich in a wide spectrum of fungi and their metabolites.
Methods: We searched PUBMED and Google Scholar databases to identify clinical and pre-clinical
studies on fungal metabolites, composition of human mycobiota and fungal dysbiosis.
Results: Fungal metabolites may serve as signaling molecules and exert significant biological effects
including trophic, anti-inflammatory or antibacterial actions. Finally, research suggests an association
between shifts in gut fungi composition and human health. Changes in mycobiota composition have
been found in obesity, hepatitis and inflammatory bowel diseases.
Conclusion: The influence of mycobiota and dietary fungi on homeostasis in mammals suggests a
pharmacotherapeutic potential of modulating the mycobiota which may include treatment with probiotics
and fecal transplantation. Furthermore, antibacterial action of fungi-derived molecules may be
considered as a substitution for currently used antibacterial agents and preservatives in food industry.