Evaluation of Nutritional Supplementation with Palm Oil in High-Gravity Beer Production

Author(s): Caroline C.A. Magalhães, Julia A. Romão, Geiza S. Araújo, Diego T. Santos*, Giovani B.M. De Carvalho.

Journal Name: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture

Volume 10 , Issue 1 , 2019

Submit Manuscript
Submit Proposal

Graphical Abstract:


Background: The use of nutritional supplementation of the brewer's wort can be an interesting option to increase cell viability and yeast fermentability.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effects of the variables wort concentration and nutritional supplementation with palm oil in the production of beer in high-density wort.

Methods: The process effects were evaluated through the central composite rotational design of type 22 associated with the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The fermentations were carried out using the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, lager type, at 15°C.

Results: The mathematical models and RSM obtained were an efficienct strategy to determine the optimum fermentation point for the ethanol volumetric productivity (wort concentration of 20.90 °P and palm oil content of 0.19 % v/v) and for the apparent degree of fermentation (wort concentration of 16.90 °P and palm oil content of 0.22% v/v). There was a good correlation between the experimental values observed and predicted by the model, indicating that the fit of the model was satisfactory and it can be inferred that the increase of the wort concentration and the nutritional supplementation with the palm oil reached an ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.55 g/L.h and an apparent degree of fermentation of 50.20 %.

Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that our study demonstrates that nutritional supplementation with palm oil is an alternative and promising option for the breweries to increase productivity. There are recent patents also suggesting the advantages of using alternative nutritional supplements in beverage production.

Keywords: Beer, palm oil, high gravity, supplementation, modeling, productivity.

Rijswijck IMHV, Wolkers-Rooijackers JCM, Abee T, Smid EJ. Performance of non‐conventional yeasts in co‐culture with brewers’ yeast for steering ethanol and aroma production. Microb Biotechnol 2017; 10: 1591-602.
Granato D, Branco GF, Faria JA, Cruz AG. Characterization of Brazilian lager and brown ale beers based on color, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity using chemometrics. J Sci Food Agric 2010; 91: 563-71.
Linko M, Haikara A, Ritala A, Penttilã M. Recent advances in the malting and brewing industry. J Biotechnol 1998; 65: 85-98.
Arshad M, Hussain T, Iqbal M, Abbasc M. Enhanced ethanol production at commercial scale from molasses using high gravity technology by mutant S. cerevisiae. Braz J Microbiol 2017; 48: 403-9.
Puligundla P, Smogrovicova D, Obulam VSR, Ko S. Very High Gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation a research update. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2011; 38: 1133-44.
Silva DP, Brányik T, Dragone G, Vicente AA, Teixeira JA, Almeida e Silva JB. High gravity batch and continuous processes for beer production: Evaluation of fermentation performance and beer quality. Chem Pap 2008; 62: 34-41.
Dragone G, Silva DP, Almeida e Silva JB. Factors influencing ethanol production rates at high-gravity brewing. Food Sci Technol 2004; 37: 797-802.
Bliek M, Toye G, Dumortier F, Verstrepen KJ, Delvaux FR, Thevelein JM, et al. Isolation and characterization of Brewer’s yeast variants with improved fermentation performance under high-gravity conditions. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007; 73: 815-24.
Guimaraes PMR, Virtanen H, Londesborough J. Direct evidence that maltose transport activity is affected by lipid composition of brewer’s yeast. J Inst Brew 2006; 112: 203-9.
Ferreira DR, Beleia AP, Silva RSSF. Alterations of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in the continuous industrial par frying of breaded chicken snacks. Food Sci Technol 2014; 34: 32-7.
Pham TNL, Doan NHD, Le Van VM. Using fed-batch fermentation in very high gravity brewing: Effects of Tween 80 and ergosterol supplementation on fermentation performance of immobilized yeast in calcium alginate gel. Int Food Res J 2010; 17: 995-1002.
Tran QH, Nguyen TT, Le VVM, Hoang KA. Effect of Tween 80 and ergosterol supplementation on fermentation performance of the immobilized yeast in high gravity brewing. Int Food Res J 2010; 17: 309-18.
Mussatto SI, Roberto IC. Establishment of the optimum initial xylose concentration and nutritional supplementation of brewer’s spent grain hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii. Process Biochem 2008; 43: 540-6.
AOAC International. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, AOAC International: Gaithersburg 2000. 2: 26-44.
Breuil C, Saddler JN. Comparison of the 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and Nelson-Somogyi methods of assaying for reducing sugars and determining cellulase activity. Enzyme Microb Technol 1985; 7: 327-32.
Adolfo Lutz Institute. Analytical standards: Chemical and physical methods for food analysis, 4th Ed., Adolfo Lutz Institute: São Paulo 2005. 1: pp. 407-19
Bonneu M, Crouzet M, Urdaci M, Aigle M. Direct selection of yeast mutants with reduced viability on plates by eritrosine B. staining. Anal Biochem 1991; 193: 225-30.
Carvalho GBM, Silva DP, Bento CV, Vicente AA, Teixeira JÁ, Graças MAF, et al. Banana as adjunct in beer production: Applicability and performance of fermentative parameters. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2009; 155: 356-65.
Borzani W. Batch ethanol fermentation: The correlation between the fermentation efficiency and the biomass initial concentration depends on what is considered as produced ethanol. Braz J Microbiol 2006; 37: 87-9.
Box GE, Hunter WG, Hunter JS. Statistics for experimenters An introduction to design, data analysis and model building. John Wiley: New York 1978.
Almeida RB, Almeida e Silva JB, Lima UA, Silva DP, Ana A. Evaluation of fermentation parameters during high-gravity beer production. Braz J Chem Eng 2001; 18: 459-65.
Dragone G, Mussato SI, Almeida e Silva JB. High gravity brewing by continuous process using immobilised yeast: Effect of wort original gravity on fermentation performance. J Inst Brew 2007; 113: 391-8.
Avesukaree C, Damnernsawad A, Kruatrichue M, Pokethtuyook P, Boonchird C, Kaneko Y, et al. Genome - Wide identification of genes involved in tolerance to various environmental stresses in saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Appl Genet 2009; 50: 301-10.
Devantier R, Pedersen S, Olsson L. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2005; 68: 622-9.
Arrizon J, Gschaedler A. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process. Can J Microbiol 2002; 48: 965-70.
Burlew KH, DiCosimo R, Grady MC, Patnaik R. Supplementation of fatty acids for improving alcohol productivity. US20110312053A1 2010.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [48 - 56]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/2212798410666180723154633
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 29