Background: The introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has resulted in the emergence of some metabolic complications including hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus among HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus and their associated risk factors in HIV positive patients.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on HIV positive patients who visited Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran (2004-2013). Medical records of patients were reviewed retrospectively. A logistic regression model was applied for analysis of the association between glycemic status and relevant risk factors. Results: Out of 480 patients who were included in this study, 267 (55.6%) had hyperglycemia, including 28 (5.8%) with diabetes mellitus and 239 (49.8%) with pre-diabetes. The higher frequency of hyperglycemia, was found to be significantly associated with older age (OR for patients ˃40 years old, 2.260; 95% CI, 1.491, 3.247), male gender (OR, 1.555; 95% CI, 1.047, 2.311), higher Body Mass Index (OR for patients with BMI˃25 Kg/m², 1.706; 95% CI, 1.149, 2.531) and prolonged duration of HIV infection (OR for patients with duration of HIV infection ≥60 months, 2.027; 95% CI, 1.372, 2.992). Conclusion: Hyperglycemia, especially pre-diabetes, is highly frequent among Iranian people living with HIV. Male gender, older age, prolonged duration of HIV infection, and higher BMI were associated with a higher prevalence of hyperglycemia. Hence, it is important to screen all HIV infected patients at the time of diagnosis and then periodically for hyperglycemia.