Nerve injury is a large problem that produces much pain in patients. Injury to the nervous
system causes serious consequences and affects a person’s quality of life. The development of tissue
engineering has created a brighter future for nerve regeneration, and research has not stopped since the
discovery of stem cells. Stem cells are a type of pluripotent cell that exhibits the capacity of selfdifferentiation
and proliferation. Many studies have demonstrated the ability of stem cells to differentiate
into other types of cells, including neurons, after induction with trophic factors in vivo and in vitro.
Scientists have isolated a variety of stem cells from different organs and tissues in the human body and
demonstrated that these cells were efficacious in regenerative medicine. The use of these cells provides
a non-surgical method for the treatment of neurological diseases, such as nerve defects. However,
many problems must be resolved before using these cells in the clinical field. The microenvironment
and delivery methods of cells also affect the regeneration process. The present article comprehensively
summarizes the progress of stem cells in the field of nerve regeneration in the recent decades.
Keywords: Stem cell, differentiation, neuron, nerve system, biological conduit, trophic factor, PNS, CNS.
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