Recent Advances in Color and Whiteness Evaluations in Dentistry

Author(s): María M. Pérez*, Oscar E. Pecho, Razvan Ghinea, Rosa Pulgar, Alvaro Della Bona.

Journal Name: Current Dentistry

Volume 1 , Issue 1 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: The final goal of color measurement or shade specification in dentistry is the reproduction by prosthetic materials of all important appearance characteristics of natural oral structures. The application of color science in dentistry is an objective way to measure and evaluate such structures and dental materials in clinical practice and dental research.

Methods: Literature on color science was reviewed to present new metrics to evaluate color differences of dental materials and dental structures. Visual acceptability and perceptibility values of color differences are reviewed and new whiteness indexes to describe whiteness in dentistry are presented.

Results: In the last decade, the CIELAB 50:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were set to 1.2 and 2.7, respectively, and the CIEDE2000 50:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were set to 0.8 and 1.8. The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula became increasingly popular in dentistry. Developments in color science have led to the description of tooth whiteness and changes in tooth whiteness based on whiteness indexes, with the most relevant being the WID whiteness index, which is a customized index based in CIELAB color space.

Conclusion: The application of color science in dentistry has allowed the precise description of tooth color and whiteness. The revised and new CIEDE2000 color-difference formula is expected to fully replace the outdated CIELAB formula in almost all dental applications. Recent psychophysical studies have reported values of visual thresholds and new whiteness indexes, which can serve as quality control tools to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and interpret visual and instrumental findings in clinical dentistry, dental research, and subsequent standardization.

Keywords: Color, CIELAB, CIEDE2000 difference color, CIE, whiteness indexes, color-difference thresholds.

[1]
Johnston WM. Color measurement in dentistry. J Dent 2009; 37(Suppl. 1): e2-6.
[2]
Joiner A, Luo W. Tooth colour and whiteness: A review. J Dent 2017; 67(Suppl. 1): S3-S10.
[3]
Brook AH, Smith RN, Lath DJ. The clinical measurement of tooth colour and stain. Int Dent J 2007; 57(5): 324-30.
[4]
Chen H, Huang J, Dong X, et al. A systematic review of visual and instrumental measurements for tooth shade matching. Quintessence Int 2012; 43(8): 649-59.
[5]
Chu SJ, Trushkowsky RD, Paravina RD. Dental color matching instrumentals and systems. Rev Clin Res Aspects J Dent 2010; 38(Suppl. 2): e2-e16.
[6]
International Organization for Standardization. ISO/TR 28642: 2016 Technical Report(E): Dentistry - Guidance on colour measurements. ISO Geneva 2016.
[7]
Wyszecki G, Stiles WS. Color science: Concepts and methods, quantitative data and formulae. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley 1982.
[8]
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage CIE Technical Report: Colorimetry CIE Pub No 153 Vienna, Austria: CIE Central Bureau; 2004
[9]
Joiner A, Hopkinson I, Deng Y, et al. A review of toothcolour and whiteness. J Dent 2008; 36(Suppl. 1): S2-7.
[10]
Clarke FJJ, McDonald R, Rigg B. Modification to the JPC79 color difference formula. J Soc Dyers Colour 1984; 100(4): 128-32.
[11]
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. CIE Technical Report: Industrial color-difference evaluation. CIE Pub No. 116. Vienna, Austria: CIE Central Bureau; 1995
[12]
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. CIE Technical Report: Improvement to industrial color difference equation. CIE Pub No. 142. Vienna, Austria: CIE Central Bureau; 2001.
[13]
Luo MR, Cui G, Rigg B. The development of the CIE 2000 color difference formula: CIEDE2000. Color Res Appl 2001; 26(5): 340-50.
[14]
Sharma G, Wu W, Dalal EN. The CIEDE2000 color-difference formula: implementation notes, supplementary test data, and mathematical observations. Color Res Appl 2005; 30(1): 21-30.
[15]
Pérez MM, Saleh A, Yebra A, et al. Study of the variation between CIELAB delta E* and CIEDE2000 color-differences of resin composites. Dent Mater J 2007; 26(1): 21-8.
[16]
Lee YK. Comparison of CIELAB DeltaE(*) and CIEDE2000 color differences after polymerization and thermo-cycling of resin composites. Dent Mater 2005; 21(7): 678-82.
[17]
Kim SH, Lee YK, Lim BS. Influence of porcine liver esterase on the color of dental resin composites by CIEDE2000 system. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2005; 72(2): 276-83.
[18]
Paravina RD, Kimura M, Powers JM. Evaluation of polymerization-dependent changes in color and translucency of resin composites using two formulae. Odontology 2005; 93(1): 46-51.
[19]
Xu BT, Zhang B, Kang Y, et al. Applicability of CIELAB/ CIEDE2000 formula in visual color assessments of metal ceramic restorations. J Dent 2012; 40(Suppl. 1): e3-9.
[20]
Gómez-Polo C, Portillo Muñoz A, Lorenzo-Luengo MC, et al. Comparison of two color-difference formulas using the Bland-Altman approach based on natural tooth color space. J Prosthet Dent 2016; 115(4): 482-8.
[21]
Gómez-Polo C, Portillo Muñoz A, Lorenzo-Luengo MC, et al. Comparison of the CIELab and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas. J Prosthet Dent 2016; 115(1): 65-70.
[22]
Pecho OE, Ghinea R, Alessandretti R, et al. Visual and instrumental shade matching using CIELAB and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas. Dent Mater 2016; 32(1): 82-9.
[23]
Pecho OE, Ghinea R, Perez MM, et al. Influence of gender on visual shade matching in dentistry. J Esthet Restor Dent 2017; 29(2): E15-23.
[24]
Gómez-Polo C, Montero J, Gómez Polo M, et al. Comparison of the CIELAB and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas on gingival color space. J Prosthodont 2017; (in press) doi: 10.1111/jopr. 12717: [Epub ahead of print].
[25]
Olms C, Setz JM. The repeatability of digital shade measurement a clinical study. Clin Oral Investig 2013; 17(4): 1161-6.
[26]
Guerra F, Mazur M, Corridore D, et al. Evaluation of the esthetic properties of developmental defects of enamel: A spectrophotometric clinical study. Sci World J 2015; 878235: 1-9.
[27]
Elamin HO, Abubakr NH, Ibrahim YE. Identifying the tooth shade in group of patients using Vita Easyshade. Eur J Dent 2015; 9(2): 213-7.
[28]
Chu SJ. Use of a reflectance spectrophotometer in evaluating shade change resulting from tooth-whitening products. J Esthet Restor Dent 2003; 15(Suppl. S1): S42-8.
[29]
Raoufi S, Birkhed D. Effect of whitening toothpastes on tooth staining using two different colour-measuring devices. A 12-week clinical trial. Int Dent J 2010; 60(6): 419-23.
[30]
Tabatabaian F, Motamedi E, Sahabi M, Torabzadeh H, Namdari M. Effect of thickness of monolithic zirconia ceramic on final color. J Prosthet Dent 2018; 120(2): 257-62.
[31]
Herrera LJ, Pulgar R, Santana J, et al. Prediction of color change tooth bleaching using fuzzy logic for vita classical shades. Appl Opt 2010; 49(3): 422-9.
[32]
Gregorius WC, Kattadiyil MT, Goodacre CJ, et al. Effects of ageing and staining on color of acrylic resin denture teeth. J Dent 2012; 40(Suppl. 2): e47-54.
[33]
Pérez MM, Ghinea R, Ugarte-Alván LI, et al. Color and translucency in silorane-based resin composite compared to universal and nanofilled composites. J Dent 2010; 38(Suppl. 2): e110-6.
[34]
Johnston WM, Ma T, Kienle BH. Translucency parameter of colorants for maxillofacial prostheses. Int J Prosthodont 1995; 8(1): 79-86.
[35]
Johnston WM. Review of translucency determinations and applications to dental materials. J Esthet Restor Dent 2014; 26(4): 217-23.
[36]
Zhao M, Sun Y, Zhang J, et al. Novel translucent and strong submicron alumina ceramics for dental restorations. J Dent Res 2018; 97(3): 289-95.
[37]
Della Bona A, Nogueira AD, Pecho OE. Optical properties of CAD–CAM ceramic systems. J Dent 2014; 42(9): 1202-9.
[38]
Pecho OE, Ghinea R, Ionescu AM, et al. Color and translucency of zirconia ceramics, human dentine and bovine dentine. J Dent 2012; 40(S): e34-40.
[39]
Pecho OE, Pérez MM, Ghinea R, et al. Lightness, chroma and hue differences on visual shade matching. Dent Mater 2016; 32(11): 1362-73.
[40]
Subasi MG, Alp G, Johnston WM, et al. Effect of thickness on optical properties of monolithic CAD-CAM ceramics. J Dent2018 in press
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2018.01.010]
[41]
Marchionatti AM, Wandscher WF, May MM, et al. Color stability of ceramic laminate veneers cemented with light-polymerizing and dual-polymerizing agent: A split-mouth randomized clinical trial. J Prosthet Dent 2017; 118(5): 604-10.
[42]
Kim HK, Kim SH. Comparison of the optical properties of pre-colored dental monolithic zirconia ceramics sintered in a conventional furnace versus a microwave oven. J Adv Prosthodont 2017; 9(5): 394-401.
[43]
Lawson NC, Burgess JO. Gloss and resistance of ceramic-polymer CAD/CAM restorative blocks. J Esthet Restor Dent 2016; 28(Suppl. 1): S40-5.
[44]
Acar O, Yilmaz B, Altintas SH, et al. Color stain ability of CAD/CAD and nanocomposite resin materials. J Prosthet Dent 2016; 115(1): 71-5.
[45]
Della Bona A, Pecho OE, Ghinea R, et al. Color parameters and shade correspondence of CAD-CAM ceramic systems. J Dent 2015; 43(6): 726-34.
[46]
Lago M, Mozzaquatro LR, Rodrigues C, et al. Influence of bleaching agents on color and translucency of aged resin composites. J Esthet Restor Dent 2017; 29(5): 368-77.
[47]
de Oliveira DC, Ayres AP, Rocha MG, et al. Effect of different in vitro aging methods on color stability of dental resin-based composite using CIELAB and CIEDE2000 color-difference formulas. J Esthet Restor Dent 2015; 27(5): 322-30.
[48]
Alberton Da Silva V, Alberton Da Silva S, Pecho OE, et al. Influence of composite type and light irradiance on color stability after immersion in different beverages. J Esthet Restor Dent in press
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4931111/jerd.12383]
[49]
Mazur M, Westland S, Guerra F, et al. Objective and subjective aesthetic performance of icon® treatment for enamel hypomineralization lesions in young adolescents: A retrospective single center study. J Dent 2018; 68(1): 104-8.
[50]
Mourouzis P, Koulaouzidou E, Palaghias G, et al. Color match of resin composites to intact tooth structure. J Appl Biomater Funct Mater 2015; 13(3): e259-65.
[51]
Amer RS, Chandrasekaran I, Johnston WM. Illuminant effect on the coverage error of a gingiva-colored composite resin shade guide. J Prosthet Dent 2016; 116(5): 770-6.
[52]
Cook WD, Chong MP. Colour stability and visual perception of dimethacrylate based dental composite resins. Biomaterials 1985; 6(4): 257-64.
[53]
Johnston WM, Kao EC. Assessment of appearance match by visual observation and clinical colorimetry. J Dent Res 1989; 68(5): 819-22.
[54]
Ragain JC, Johnston WM. Color acceptance of direct dental restorative materials by human observers. Color Res Appl 2000; 25(4): 278-85.
[55]
Leow ME, Ow RK, Lee MH, et al. Assessment of colour differences in silicone hand and digit prostheses: Perceptible and acceptable thresholds for fair and dark skin shades. Prosthet Orthot Int 2006; 30(1): 5-16.
[56]
Wee AG, Lindsey DT, Shroyer KM, et al. Use of a porcelain color discrimination test to evaluate color difference formulas. J Prosthet Dent 2007; 98(2): 101-9.
[57]
Lindsey DT, Wee AG. Perceptibility and acceptability of CIELAB color differences in computer-simulated teeth. J Dent 2007; 35(7): 593-9.
[58]
Da Silva JD, Park SE, Weber HP, et al. Clinical performance of a newly developed spectrophotometric system on tooth color reproduction. J Prosthet Dent 2008; 99(5): 361-8.
[59]
Paravina RD. Critical appraisal. Color in dentistry: Match me, match me not. J Esthet Restor Dent 2009; 21(2): 133-9.
[60]
Ishikawa-Nagai S, Yoshida A, Sakai M, et al. Clinical evaluation of perceptibility of color differences between natural teeth and all-ceramic crowns. J Dent 2009; 37(Suppl. 1): e57-63.
[61]
Lindsey DT, Wee AG. Assessing tooth color differences in digital facial portraits. J Dent Res 2010; 89(11): 1254-8.
[62]
Alghazali N, Burnside G, Moallem M, et al. Assessment of perceptibility and acceptability of color difference of denture teeth. J Dent 2012; 40(Suppl. 1): e10-7.
[63]
Khashayar G, Bain PA, Salari S, et al. Perceptibility and acceptability thresholds for colour differences in dentistry. J Dent 2014; 42(6): 637-44.
[64]
Ghinea R, Pérez MM, Herrera LJ, et al. Color difference thresholds in dental ceramics. J Dent 2010; 38(Suppl. 2): e57-64.
[65]
Paravina RD, Ghinea R, Herrera LJ, et al. Color difference thresholds in dentistry. J Esthet Restor Dent 2015; 27(Suppl. 1): S1-9.
[66]
Pérez MM, Ghinea R, Herrera LJ, et al. Dental ceramics: A CIEDE2000 acceptability thresholds for lightness, chroma and hue differences. J Dent 2011; 39(Suppl. 3): e37-44.
[67]
Sailer I, Fehmer V, Ioannidis A, et al. Threshold value for the perception of color changes of human gingiva. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2014; 34(6): 757-62.
[68]
Ren J, Lin H, Huang Q, et al. Determining color difference thresholds in denture base acrylic resin. J Prosthet Dent 2015; 114(5): 702-8.
[69]
Pérez MM, Ghinea R, Herrera LJ, et al. Color difference thresholds for computer-simulated human gingiva. J Esthet Restor Dent 2018; 30(2): E24-30.
[70]
Kwon SR, Wertz PW. Review of the mechanism of tooth whitening. J Esthet Restor Dent 2015; 27(5): 240-57.
[71]
Ganz E. Whiteness: photometric specification and colorimetric evaluation. Appl Opt 1976; 15(9): 2039-58.
[72]
Ganz E. Whiteness measurement. J Color Appearance 1972; 1(5): 33-41.
[73]
Ganz E. Whiteness formula: A selection. Appl Opt 1979; 18(7): 1073-8.
[74]
Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage. CIE Technical Report: Colorimetry. CIE Pub No. 15.2. Vienna, Austria: CIE Central Bureau; 1986.
[75]
ASTM Designation E313-73 (Reapproved 1993). Standard test method for indices of whiteness and yellowness of near-white, opaque materials. 1993.
[76]
García JA, Rubiño M, Romero J, et al. Measuring the whiteness of human teeth. Color Res Appl 1993; 18(5): 349-52.
[77]
Lath DL, Widgoose DG, Guan YH, et al. A digital image analysis system for the assessment of tooth whiteness compared to visual shade matching. J Clin Dent 2007; 18(1): 17-20.
[78]
Martin de las Heras S, Valenzuela A, Bellini R, et al. Objective measurement of dental color for age estimation by spectroradiometry. Forensic Sci Int 2003; 132(1): 57-62.
[79]
Luo W, Westland S, Ellwood R, et al. Development of a whiteness index for dentistry. J Dent 2009; 37(Suppl. 1): e21-6.
[80]
Ontiveros JC, Paravina RD. Color change of vital teeth exposed to bleaching performed with and without supplementary light. J Dent 2009; 37(11): 840-7.
[81]
Tao D, Smith RD, Zhang Q, et al. Tooth whitening evaluation of blue covarine containing toothpastes. J Dent 2017; 67(Suppl.): S20-4.
[82]
Bizhang M, Müller M, Phark JH, et al. Clinical trial of long-term color stability of hydrogen peroxide strips and sodium percarbonate filmAm J Dent 2007; 20(Spec A): 23A-7A
[83]
Gerlach RW, Zhou X, McClanahan SF. Comparative response of whitening strips to a low peroxide and potassium nitrate bleaching gelAm J Dent 2002; 15(Spec A): 19A-23A
[84]
Hernández Guerrero JC, Jiménez-Farfán MD, Lopez-Salgado A, et al. Professional whitening strips in a university population. Am J Dent 2007; 20: 15A-8A.
[85]
Pecho OE, Ghinea R, Navarro do Amaral EA, et al. Relevant optical properties for direct restorative materials. Dent Mater 2016; 32(5): e105-12.
[86]
Pérez MM, Ghinea R, Rivas MJ, et al. Development of a customized whiteness index for dentistry based on CIELAB color space. Dent Mater 2016; 32(3): 461-7.
[87]
Westland S, Luo W, Li Y, et al. Investigation of the perceptual thresholds of tooth whiteness. J Dent 2017; 67(Suppl.): S11-4.
[88]
Pérez MM, Dudea D, Herrera LJ, et al. Whiteness thresholds in dentistry based on WID index: preliminary results. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Conference of the Society for Color and Appearance in Dentistry (SCAD) 2017. Newport Beach, CA; USA.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as


Article Details

VOLUME: 1
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2019
Page: [23 - 29]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/2542579X01666180719125137

Article Metrics

PDF: 24
HTML: 5