Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an advanced and chronic endocrine disorder characterized
by an insufficiency of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and liver, adipose tissues, and
Objective: The main objective of this study is to understand the mechanism and genes which are responsible
for the prevalence of diabetes. The study also covers various types of diabetic complications
with special reference to insulin role and defects.
Methods: The scientific literature and patents were reviewed and analyzed based on their suitability and
relevance to the theme of the study. The scientific literature was covered from the authentic databases
such as Elsevier, Springer, and Bentham Science. The patents were reviewed from
Results: Glucokinase (ATP: D-glucose-6-phosphotransferase; GCK), initiates glycolysis and acts as a
glucose sensor and metabolic signal producer in liver and pancreas. PCR-sequencing showed qualitative
differences in diabetic patients in comparison to healthy subjects. Glucokinase is the most important
component in glucose detection of pancreatic islet beta cells in diabetes because glucokinase mutations
can be one of the most common single gene disorders described. It is known that a genetic variation
of a human glucokinase gene, including a point mutation, causes MODY, the concentration of
plasma glucose increased and it is supposed to be the cause of diabetes of the present study subjects.
Owing to hyperglycemia and individual components of the insulin resistance (metabolic) syndrome,
people with Type II DM are prone to the high threat for microvascular complications (including nephropathy,
retinopathy, and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (such as Ischemic Heart Disease).
There were also significant differences (P < 0.0001) in glycation levels (0.90, 0.4838mole/mole),
random blood sugar (348.8, 105.8mg/dL), cholesterol levels (235.3, 161.8mg/dL), low density lipoprotein
in diabetic subjects (155.3, 28.46mg/dL) and in healthy donors. GCK gene mutations were found in
70% of the patients while 30% are non-mutated.
Conclusion: In conclusion, lipids, glucose, and protein play an essential role in the initiation of AGE’s
or diabetic complications (Micro and Macrovascular Complications). The importance of the clinical
results should also be recognized in the genetic analysis of heterogeneous disorders as NIDDM/ Type II