Determination of Verapamil in Exhaled Breath Condensate by Using Microextraction and Liquid Chromatography

Author(s): Fariba Pourkarim, Ali Shayanfar, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari, Fariborz Akbarzadeh, Sanaz Sajedi-Amin, Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Abolghasem Jouyban*.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Analysis

Volume 15 , Issue 5 , 2019

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Graphical Abstract:


Background: Developing a simple analysis method for quantification of drug concentration is one of the essential issues in pharmacokinetic and therapeutic drug monitoring studies.

Objective: A fast and reliable dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure was employed for preconcentration of verapamil in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples and this was followed by the determination with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

Methods: A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) combined with a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (DLLME) was applied for quantification of verapamil in the EBC samples. The developed method was validated according to FDA guidelines.

Results: Under the optimum conditions, the method provided a linear range between 0.07 and 0.8 µg.mL-1 with a coefficient of determination of 0.998. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation and relative error values of the method were below 15%, which indicated good precision and accuracy. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of verapamil in two real samples with concentrations of 0.07 and 0.09 µg.mL-1.

Conclusion: The established HPLC-UV-DLLME method could be applied for the analysis of verapamil in human EBC samples.

Keywords: Verapamil, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, high-performance liquid chromatography, exhaled breath condensate, cardiovascular diseases, mortality.

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Year: 2019
Page: [535 - 541]
Pages: 7
DOI: 10.2174/1573412914666180717125434
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