The Role of Adipokines in the Establishment and Progression of Head and Neck Neoplasms

Author(s): Theodora Tzanavari, Jason Tasoulas, Chrysoula Vakaki, Chrysovalantou Mihailidou, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Stamatios Theocharis*.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 25 , 2019

Abstract:

Adipokines constitute a family of protein factors secreted by white adipose tissue (WAT), that regulate the functions of WAT and other sites. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin, are the main adipokines present in serum and saliva, targeting several tissues and organs, including vessels, muscles, liver and pancreas. Besides body mass regulation, adipokines affect glucose homeostasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and other crucial cell procedures. Their involvement in tumor formation and growth is well established and deregulation of adipokine and adipokine receptors’ expression is observed in several malignancies including those located in the head and neck region. Intracellular effects of adipokines are mediated by a plethora of receptors that activate several signaling cascades including Janus kinase/ Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/ STAT pathway), Phospatidylinositol kinase (PI3/ Akt/ mTOR) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). The present review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of adipokines family members in carcinogenesis of the head and neck region. The diagnostic and prognostic significance of adipokines and their potential role as serum and saliva biomarkers are also discussed.

Keywords: Adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, head and neck cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma, salivary gland tumors, thyroid cancer, esophageal cancer.

[1]
Zhang, Y.; Proenca, R.; Maffei, M.; Barone, M.; Leopold, L.; Friedman, J.M. Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature, 1994, 372(6505), 425-432.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/372425a0] [PMID: 7984236]
[2]
Howard, J.M.; Beddy, P.; Ennis, D.; Keogan, M.; Pidgeon, G.P.; Reynolds, J.V. Associations between leptin and adiponectin receptor upregulation, visceral obesity and tumour stage in oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinoma. Br. J. Surg., 2010, 97(7), 1020-1027.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bjs.7072] [PMID: 20632267]
[3]
Wei, E.K.; Giovannucci, E.; Fuchs, C.S.; Willett, W.C.; Mantzoros, C.S. Low plasma adiponectin levels and risk of colorectal cancer in men: a prospective study. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2005, 97(22), 1688-1694.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/dji376] [PMID: 16288122]
[4]
Ferlay, J.; Shin, H.R.; Bray, F.; Forman, D.; Mathers, C.; Parkin, D.M. Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008. Int. J. Cancer, 2010, 127(12), 2893-2917.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25516] [PMID: 21351269]
[5]
Barnes, L.; Eveson, J.W.; Reichart, P.; Sidransky, D. Pathology and Genetics of Head and Neck Tumours. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours; IARC, 2005.
[6]
Argiris, A.; Karamouzis, M.V.; Raben, D.; Ferris, R.L. Head and neck cancer. Lancet, 2008, 371(9625), 1695-1709.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60728-X] [PMID: 18486742]
[7]
Ries, L.A.G.; Melbert, D.; Krapcho, M.; Stinchcomb, D.G.; How-lader, N.; Horner, M.J.; Mariotto, A.; Miller, B.A.; Feuer, E.J.; Al-tekruse, S.F.; Lewis, D.R.; Clegg, L.; Eisner, M.P.; Reichman, M.; Edwards, B.K., Eds.; SEER Cancer Statistics Review; 1975-2005.
[8]
Denver, R.J.; Bonett, R.M.; Boorse, G.C. Evolution of leptin structure and function. Neuroendocrinology, 2011, 94(1), 21-38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000328435] [PMID: 21677426]
[9]
Chan, J.L.; Heist, K.; DePaoli, A.M.; Veldhuis, J.D.; Mantzoros, C.S. The role of falling leptin levels in the neuroendocrine and metabolic adaptation to short-term starvation in healthy men. J. Clin. Invest., 2003, 111(9), 1409-1421.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI200317490] [PMID: 12727933]
[10]
Gavrila, A.; Peng, C.K.; Chan, J.L.; Mietus, J.E.; Goldberger, A.L.; Mantzoros, C.S. Diurnal and ultradian dynamics of serum adiponectin in healthy men: comparison with leptin, circulating soluble leptin receptor, and cortisol patterns. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2003, 88(6), 2838-2843.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2002-021721] [PMID: 12788897]
[11]
Rosenbaum, M.; Leibel, R.L. Clinical review 107: Role of gonadal steroids in the sexual dimorphisms in body composition and circulating concentrations of leptin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 1999, 84(6), 1784-1789.
[PMID: 10372664]
[12]
Zhang, F.; Basinski, M.B.; Beals, J.M.; Briggs, S.L.; Churgay, L.M.; Clawson, D.K.; DiMarchi, R.D.; Furman, T.C.; Hale, J.E.; Hsiung, H.M.; Schoner, B.E.; Smith, D.P.; Zhang, X.Y.; Wery, J.P.; Schevitz, R.W. Crystal structure of the obese protein leptin-E100. Nature, 1997, 387(6629), 206-209.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/387206a0] [PMID: 9144295]
[13]
Farooqi, I.S.; Jebb, S.A.; Langmack, G.; Lawrence, E.; Cheetham, C.H.; Prentice, A.M.; Hughes, I.A.; McCamish, M.A.; O’Rahilly, S. Effects of recombinant leptin therapy in a child with congenital leptin deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med., 1999, 341(12), 879-884.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199909163411204] [PMID: 10486419]
[14]
Lehr, S.; Hartwig, S.; Sell, H. Adipokines: a treasure trove for the discovery of biomarkers for metabolic disorders. Proteomics Clin. Appl., 2012, 6(1-2), 91-101.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.201100052] [PMID: 22213627]
[15]
Ahima, R.S.; Osei, S.Y. Leptin signaling. Physiol. Behav., 2004, 81(2), 223-241.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.02.014] [PMID: 15159169]
[16]
Mantzoros, C.S.; Magkos, F.; Brinkoetter, M.; Sienkiewicz, E.; Dardeno, T.A.; Kim, S.Y.; Hamnvik, O.P.; Koniaris, A. Leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab., 2011, 301(4), E567-E584.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00315.2011] [PMID: 21791620]
[17]
VanSaun, M.N. Molecular Pathways: Adiponectin and Leptin Signaling in Cancer. Clin. Cancer Res., 2013, 19(8), 1926-1932.
[PMID: 23355630]
[18]
Frühbeck, G. Intracellular signalling pathways activated by leptin. Biochem. J., 2006, 393(Pt 1), 7-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20051578] [PMID: 16336196]
[19]
Ogunwobi, O.O.; Beales, I.L. The anti-apoptotic and growth stimulatory actions of leptin in human colon cancer cells involves activation of JNK mitogen activated protein kinase, JAK2 and PI3 kinase/Akt. Int. J. Colorectal Dis., 2007, 22(4), 401-409.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-006-0181-y] [PMID: 16912864]
[20]
Dunn, S.L.; Björnholm, M.; Bates, S.H.; Chen, Z.; Seifert, M.; Myers, M.G. Jr Feedback inhibition of leptin receptor/Jak2 signaling via Tyr1138 of the leptin receptor and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Mol. Endocrinol., 2005, 19(4), 925-938.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/me.2004-0353] [PMID: 15604114]
[21]
Chung, C.D.; Liao, J.; Liu, B.; Rao, X.; Jay, P.; Berta, P.; Shuai, K. Specific inhibition of Stat3 signal transduction by PIAS3. Science, 1997, 278(5344), 1803-1805.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.278.5344.1803] [PMID: 9388184]
[22]
Kaszubska, W.; Falls, H.D.; Schaefer, V.G.; Haasch, D.; Frost, L.; Hessler, P.; Kroeger, P.E.; White, D.W.; Jirousek, M.R.; Trevillyan, J.M. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B negatively regulates leptin signaling in a hypothalamic cell line. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 2002, 195(1-2), 109-118.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0303-7207(02)00178-8] [PMID: 12354677]
[23]
Bouloumié, A.; Drexler, H.C.; Lafontan, M.; Busse, R. Leptin, the product of Ob gene, promotes angiogenesis. Circ. Res., 1998, 83(10), 1059-1066.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.RES.83.10.1059] [PMID: 9815153]
[24]
Trayhurn, P.; Wood, I.S. Adipokines: inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue. Br. J. Nutr., 2004, 92(3), 347-355.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN20041213] [PMID: 15469638]
[25]
Banerji, N.; Manivel, J.; Kanjilal, S. Enhanced expression of leptin in soft tissue sarcoma. Cancer Res., 2007, 67(9)(Suppl.), 4677.
[26]
Han, G.; Li, Y.; Cao, Y.; Yue, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, L.; Liu, J. Overexpression of leptin receptor in human glioblastoma: Correlation with vasculogenic mimicry and poor prognosis. Oncotarget, 2017, 8(35), 58163-58171.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17344. eCollection 2017 Aug 29.PubMed ] [PMID: 28938545]
[27]
Horiguchi, A.; Sumitomo, M.; Asakuma, J.; Asano, T.; Zheng, R.; Asano, T.; Nanus, D.M.; Hayakawa, M. Increased serum leptin levels and over expression of leptin receptors are associated with the invasion and progression of renal cell carcinoma. J. Urol., 2006, 176(4 Pt 1), 1631-1635.
[28]
Ng, K.L.; Small, D.; Morais, C.; Samaratunga, H.; Gobe, G.; Wood, S. Utility of cytokeratin 7, leptin and caveolin-1 biomarkers in differentiation of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and renal oncocytoma. Abstracts. BJU Int., 2015, 116, 1-27.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.13339]
[29]
Mendonsa, A.M.; Chalfant, M.C.; Gorden, L.D.; VanSaun, M.N. Modulation of the leptin receptor mediates tumor growth and migration of pancreatic cancer cells. PLoS One, 2015, 10(4), e0126686..eCollection 2015.PubMed.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126686 ] [PMID: 25919692]
[30]
Chen, C.; Chang, Y.C.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, T.P.; Chang, K.J.; Guo, I.C. Leptin induces proliferation and anti-apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cells by up-regulating cyclin D1 and down-regulating Bax via a Janus kinase 2-linked pathway. Endocr. Relat. Cancer, 2007, 14(2), 513-529.
[31]
Lipsey, C.C.; Harbuzariu, A.; Daley-Brown, D.; Gonzalez-Perez, R.R. Oncogenic role of leptin and Notch interleukin-1 leptin crosstalk outcome in cancer. World J. Methodol., 2016, 6(1), 43-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5662/wjm.v6.i1.43] [PMID: 27019796]
[32]
Liao, W.L.; Chen, C.C.; Chang, C.T.; Wu, J.Y.; Chen, C.H.; Huang, Y.C.; Tsai, C.H.; Tsai, F.J. Gene polymorphisms of adiponectin and leptin receptor are associated with early onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Taiwanese population. Int. J. Obes., 2012, 36(6), 790-796.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2011.174] [PMID: 21931325]
[33]
Yu, Z.; Han, S.; Cao, X.; Zhu, C.; Wang, X.; Guo, X. Genetic polymorphisms in adipokine genes and the risk of obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2012, 20(2), 396-406.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2011.148] [PMID: 21660081]
[34]
He, J.; Xu, G. LEP gene variant is associated with prostate cancer but not with colorectal cancer. Tumour Biol., 2013, 34(5), 3131-3136.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-013-0881-1] [PMID: 23754448]
[35]
Wang, L.Q.; Shen, W.; Xu, L.; Chen, M.B.; Gong, T.; Lu, P.H.; Tao, G.Q. The association between polymorphisms in the leptin receptor gene and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and pooled analysis. Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 2012, 136(1), 231-239.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-012-2228-9] [PMID: 22983835]
[36]
Dallal, C.; Garte, S.; Ragin, C.; Chen, J.; Lloyd, S.; Modugno, F.; Weissfeld, J.; Taioli, E. Plasma leptin levels, LEPR Q223R polymorphism and mammographic breast density: a cross-sectional study. Int. J. Biol. Markers, 2013, 28(2), 161-167.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/jbm.5000016] [PMID: 23564622]
[37]
Kim, E.Y.; Chin, H.M.; Park, S.M.; Jeon, H.M.; Chung, W.C.; Paik, C.N.; Jun, K.H. Susceptibility of gastric cancer according to leptin and leptin receptor gene polymorphisms in Korea. J. Korean Surg. Soc., 2012, 83(1), 7-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4174/jkss.2012.83.1.7] [PMID: 22792528]
[38]
Li, Y.; Geng, J.; Wang, Y.; Lu, Q.; Du, Y.; Wang, W.; Li, Z. The role of leptin receptor gene polymorphisms in determining the susceptibility and prognosis of NSCLC in Chinese patients. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol., 2012, 138(2), 311-316.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-011-1098-6] [PMID: 22127368]
[39]
Sierra-Honigmann, M.R.; Nath, A.K.; Murakami, C.; García-Cardeña, G.; Papapetropoulos, A.; Sessa, W.C.; Madge, L.A.; Schechner, J.S.; Schwabb, M.B.; Polverini, P.J.; Flores-Riveros, J.R. Biological action of leptin as an angiogenic factor. Science, 1998, 281(5383), 1683-1686.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.281.5383.1683] [PMID: 9733517]
[40]
Hotta, K.; Funahashi, T.; Arita, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Matsuda, M.; Okamoto, Y.; Iwahashi, H.; Kuriyama, H.; Ouchi, N.; Maeda, K.; Nishida, M.; Kihara, S.; Sakai, N.; Nakajima, T.; Hasegawa, K.; Muraguchi, M.; Ohmoto, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, S.; Hanafusa, T.; Matsuzawa, Y. Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol., 2000, 20(6), 1595-1599.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.ATV.20.6.1595] [PMID: 10845877]
[41]
Yokota, T.; Oritani, K.; Takahashi, I.; Ishikawa, J.; Matsuyama, A.; Ouchi, N.; Kihara, S.; Funahashi, T.; Tenner, A.J.; Tomiyama, Y.; Matsuzawa, Y. Adiponectin, a new member of the family of soluble defense collagens, negatively regulates the growth of myelomonocytic progenitors and the functions of macrophages. Blood, 2000, 96(5), 1723-1732.
[PMID: 10961870]
[42]
Kumada, M.; Kihara, S.; Ouchi, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Okamoto, Y.; Ohashi, K.; Maeda, K.; Nagaretani, H.; Kishida, K.; Maeda, N.; Nagasawa, A.; Funahashi, T.; Matsuzawa, Y. Adiponectin specifically increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 through interleukin-10 expression in human macrophages. Circulation, 2004, 109(17), 2046-2049.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000127953.98131.ED] [PMID: 15096450]
[43]
Hui, X.; Lam, K.S.; Vanhoutte, P.M.; Xu, A. Adiponectin and cardiovascular health: an update. Br. J. Pharmacol., 2012, 165(3), 574-590.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01395.x] [PMID: 21457225]
[44]
Yun, J.E.; Sull, J.W.; Lee, H.Y.; Park, E.; Kim, S.; Jo, J.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, S.Y.; Choi, Y.J.; Jee, S.H.; Huh, K.B. Serum adiponectin as a useful marker for metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev., 2009, 25(3), 259-265.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.946] [PMID: 19214966]
[45]
Wang, Y.; Lam, K.S.; Xu, J.Y.; Lu, G.; Xu, L.Y.; Cooper, G.J.; Xu, A. Adiponectin inhibits cell proliferation by interacting with several growth factors in an oligomerization-dependent manner. J. Biol. Chem., 2005, 280(18), 18341-18347.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M501149200] [PMID: 15734737]
[46]
Tworoger, S.S.; Eliassen, A.H.; Kelesidis, T.; Colditz, G.A.; Willett, W.C.; Mantzoros, C.S.; Hankinson, S.E. Plasma adiponectin concentrations and risk of incident breast cancer. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2007, 92(4), 1510-1516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-1975] [PMID: 17213279]
[47]
Cust, A.E.; Kaaks, R.; Friedenreich, C.; Bonnet, F.; Laville, M.; Lukanova, A.; Rinaldi, S.; Dossus, L.; Slimani, N.; Lundin, E.; Tjønneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Mesrine, S.; Joulin, V.; Linseisen, J.; Rohrmann, S.; Pischon, T.; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulos, D.; Trichopoulou, A.; Benetou, V.; Palli, D.; Berrino, F.; Tumino, R.; Sacerdote, C.; Mattiello, A.; Quirós, J.R.; Mendez, M.A.; Sánchez, M.J.; Larrañaga, N.; Tormo, M.J.; Ardanaz, E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Peeters, P.H.; van Gils, C.H.; Khaw, K.T.; Bingham, S.; Allen, N.; Key, T.; Jenab, M.; Riboli, E. Plasma adiponectin levels and endometrial cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2007, 92(1), 255-263.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2006-1371] [PMID: 17062769]
[48]
Grossmann, M.E.; Nkhata, K.J.; Mizuno, N.K.; Ray, A.; Cleary, M.P. Effects of adiponectin on breast cancer cell growth and signaling. Br. J. Cancer, 2008, 98(2), 370-379.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6604166] [PMID: 18182989]
[49]
Petridou, E.T.; Mitsiades, N.; Gialamas, S.; Angelopoulos, M.; Skalkidou, A.; Dessypris, N.; Hsi, A.; Lazaris, N.; Polyzos, A.; Syrigos, C.; Brennan, A.M.; Tseleni-Balafouta, S.; Mantzoros, C.S. Circulating adiponectin levels and expression of adiponectin receptors in relation to lung cancer: two case-control studies. Oncology, 2007, 73(3-4), 261-269.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000127424] [PMID: 18424891]
[50]
Dalamaga, M.; Migdalis, I.; Fargnoli, J.L.; Papadavid, E.; Bloom, E.; Mitsiades, N.; Karmaniolas, K.; Pelecanos, N.; Tseleni-Balafouta, S.; Dionyssiou-Asteriou, A.; Mantzoros, C.S. Pancreatic cancer expresses adiponectin receptors and is associated with hypoleptinemia and hyperadiponectinemia: a case-control study. Cancer Causes Control, 2009, 20(5), 625-633.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-008-9273-z] [PMID: 19051043]
[51]
Sadik, N.A.; Ahmed, A.; Ahmed, S. The significance of serum levels of adiponectin, leptin, and hyaluronic acid in hepatocellular carcinoma of cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients. Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 2012, 31(4), 311-321.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327111431091] [PMID: 22249387]
[52]
Dalamaga, M.; Diakopoulos, K.N.; Mantzoros, C.S. The role of adiponectin in cancer: a review of current evidence. Endocr. Rev., 2012, 33(4), 547-594.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/er.2011-1015] [PMID: 22547160]
[53]
Otani, K.; Kitayama, J.; Kamei, T.; Soma, D.; Miyato, H.; Yamauchi, T.; Kadowaki, T.; Nagawa, H. Adiponectin receptors are downregulated in human gastric cancer. J. Gastroenterol., 2010, 45(9), 918-927.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-010-0228-2] [PMID: 20336470]
[54]
Yamauchi, N.; Takazawa, Y.; Maeda, D.; Hibiya, T.; Tanaka, M.; Iwabu, M.; Okada-Iwabu, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Kadowaki, T.; Fukayama, M. Expression levels of adiponectin receptors are decreased in human endometrial adenocarcinoma tissues. Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol., 2012, 31(4), 352-357.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PGP.0b013e3182469583] [PMID: 22653349]
[55]
Hiyoshi, M.; Tsuno, N.H.; Otani, K.; Kawai, K.; Nishikawa, T.; Shuno, Y.; Sasaki, K.; Hongo, K.; Kaneko, M.; Sunami, E.; Takahashi, K.; Nagawa, H.; Kitayama, J. Adiponectin receptor 2 is negatively associated with lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer. Oncol. Lett., 2012, 3(4), 756-760.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2012.583] [PMID: 22740988]
[56]
Lee, H-P.; Lin, C-Y.; Shih, J-S.; Fong, Y.C.; Wang, S.W.; Li, T.M.; Tang, C.H. Adiponectin promotes VEGF-A-dependent angiogenesis in human chondrosarcoma through PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and HIF-α pathway. Oncotarget, 2015, 6(34), 36746-36761.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.5479] [PMID: 26468982]
[57]
Arita, Y.; Kihara, S.; Ouchi, N.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, K.; Miyagawa, J.; Hotta, K.; Shimomura, I.; Nakamura, T.; Miyaoka, K.; Kuriyama, H.; Nishida, M.; Yamashita, S.; Okubo, K.; Matsubara, K.; Muraguchi, M.; Ohmoto, Y.; Funahashi, T.; Matsuzawa, Y. Paradoxical decrease of an adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in obesity. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 1999, 257(1), 79-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/bbrc.1999.0255] [PMID: 10092513]
[58]
Yang, W.S.; Lee, W.J.; Funahashi, T.; Tanaka, S.; Matsuzawa, Y.; Chao, C.L.; Chen, C.L.; Tai, T.Y.; Chuang, L.M. Weight reduction increases plasma levels of an adipose-derived anti-inflammatory protein, adiponectin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2001, 86(8), 3815-3819.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jcem.86.8.7741] [PMID: 11502817]
[59]
Jamieson, N.B.; Brown, D.J.; Michael Wallace, A.; McMillan, D.C. Adiponectin and the systemic inflammatory response in weight-losing patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Cytokine, 2004, 27(2-3), 90-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2004.03.017] [PMID: 15242698]
[60]
Wolf, I.; Sadetzki, S.; Kanety, H.; Kundel, Y.; Pariente, C.; Epstein, N.; Oberman, B.; Catane, R.; Kaufman, B.; Shimon, I. Adiponectin, ghrelin, and leptin in cancer cachexia in breast and colon cancer patients. Cancer, 2006, 106(4), 966-973.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.21690] [PMID: 16411208]
[61]
Kerem, M.; Ferahkose, Z.; Yilmaz, U.T.; Pasaoglu, H.; Ofluoglu, E.; Bedirli, A.; Salman, B.; Sahin, T.T.; Akin, M. Adipokines and ghrelin in gastric cancer cachexia. World J. Gastroenterol., 2008, 14(23), 3633-3641.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.3633] [PMID: 18595130]
[62]
Kojima, M.; Hosoda, H.; Date, Y.; Nakazato, M.; Matsuo, H.; Kangawa, K. Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach. Nature, 1999, 402(6762), 656-660.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/45230] [PMID: 10604470]
[63]
Date, Y.; Kojima, M.; Hosoda, H.; Sawaguchi, A.; Mondal, M.S.; Suganuma, T.; Matsukura, S.; Kangawa, K.; Nakazato, M. Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing acylated peptide, is synthesized in a distinct endocrine cell type in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats and humans. Endocrinology, 2000, 141(11), 4255-4261.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/endo.141.11.7757] [PMID: 11089560]
[64]
Wierup, N.; Yang, S.; McEvilly, R.J.; Mulder, H.; Sundler, F. Ghrelin is expressed in a novel endocrine cell type in developing rat islets and inhibits insulin secretion from INS-1 (832/13) cells. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 2004, 52(3), 301-310.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002215540405200301] [PMID: 14966197]
[65]
Cortelazzi, D.; Cappiello, V.; Morpurgo, P.S.; Ronzoni, S.; Nobile De Santis, M.S.; Cetin, I.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Spada, A. Circulating levels of ghrelin in human fetuses. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2003, 149(2), 111-116.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/eje.0.1490111] [PMID: 12887287]
[66]
Aydin, S.; Ozercan, I.H.; Dagli, F.; Aydin, S.; Dogru, O.; Celebi, S.; Akin, O.; Guzel, S.P. Ghrelin immunohistochemistry of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary gland. Biotech. Histochem., 2005, 80(3-4), 163-168.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10520290500387847] [PMID: 16298902]
[67]
Tschöp, M.; Smiley, D.L.; Heiman, M.L. Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature, 2000, 407(6806), 908-913.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35038090] [PMID: 11057670]
[68]
Inui, A.; Asakawa, A.; Bowers, C.Y.; Mantovani, G.; Laviano, A.; Meguid, M.M.; Fujimiya, M. Ghrelin, appetite, and gastric motility: the emerging role of the stomach as an endocrine organ. FASEB J., 2004, 18(3), 439-456.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.03-0641rev] [PMID: 15003990]
[69]
Suematsu, M.; Katsuki, A.; Sumida, Y.; Gabazza, E.C.; Murashima, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Kitagawa, N.; Akatsuka, H.; Hori, Y.; Nakatani, K.; Togashi, K.; Yano, Y.; Adachi, Y. Decreased circulating levels of active ghrelin are associated with increased oxidative stress in obese subjects. Eur. J. Endocrinol., 2005, 153(3), 403-407.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/eje.1.01977] [PMID: 16131603]
[70]
Cummings, D.E.; Weigle, D.S.; Frayo, R.S.; Breen, P.A.; Ma, M.K.; Dellinger, E.P.; Purnell, J.Q. Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery. N. Engl. J. Med., 2002, 346(21), 1623-1630.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa012908] [PMID: 12023994]
[71]
Dixit, V.D.; Schaffer, E.M.; Pyle, R.S.; Collins, G.D.; Sakthivel, S.K.; Palaniappan, R.; Lillard, J.W., Jr; Taub, D.D. Ghrelin inhibits leptin- and activation-induced proinflammatory cytokine expression by human monocytes and T cells. J. Clin. Invest., 2004, 114(1), 57-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI200421134] [PMID: 15232612]
[72]
Li, W.G.; Gavrila, D.; Liu, X.; Wang, L.; Gunnlaugsson, S.; Stoll, L.L.; McCormick, M.L.; Sigmund, C.D.; Tang, C.; Weintraub, N.L. Ghrelin inhibits proinflammatory responses and nuclear factor-kappaB activation in human endothelial cells. Circulation, 2004, 109(18), 2221-2226.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000127956.43874.F2] [PMID: 15117840]
[73]
Strasser, F.; Lutz, T.A.; Maeder, M.T.; Thuerlimann, B.; Bueche, D.; Tschöp, M.; Kaufmann, K.; Holst, B.; Brändle, M.; von Moos, R.; Demmer, R.; Cerny, T. Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of intravenous ghrelin for cancer-related anorexia/cachexia: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-crossover study. Br. J. Cancer, 2008, 98(2), 300-308.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6604148] [PMID: 18182992]
[74]
Müller, T.D.; Perez-Tilve, D.; Tong, J.; Pfluger, P.T.; Tschöp, M.H. Ghrelin and its potential in the treatment of eating/wasting disorders and cachexia. J. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle, 2010, 1(2), 159-167.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13539-010-0012-4] [PMID: 21475701]
[75]
Sever, S.; White, D.L.; García, J.M. Is there an effect of ghrelin/ghrelin analogs on cancer? A systematic review. Endocr. Relat. Cancer, 2016, 23(9), R393-R409.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERC-16-0130] [PMID: 27552970]
[76]
Rajala, M.W.; Qi, Y.; Patel, H.R.; Takahashi, N.; Banerjee, R.; Pajvani, U.B.; Sinha, M.K.; Gingerich, R.L.; Scherer, P.E.; Ahima, R.S. Regulation of resistin expression and circulating levels in obesity, diabetes, and fasting. Diabetes, 2004, 53(7), 1671-1679.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.53.7.1671] [PMID: 15220189]
[77]
Verma, S.; Li, S.H.; Wang, C.H.; Fedak, P.W.; Li, R.K.; Weisel, R.D.; Mickle, D.A. Resistin promotes endothelial cell activation: further evidence of adipokine-endothelial interaction. Circulation, 2003, 108(6), 736-740.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000084503.91330.49] [PMID: 12874180]
[78]
Lumeng, C.N.; Saltiel, A.R. Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease. J. Clin. Invest., 2011, 121(6), 2111-2117.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI57132] [PMID: 21633179]
[79]
Codoñer-Franch, P.; Alonso-Iglesias, E. Resistin: insulin resistance to malignancy. Clin. Chim. Acta, 2015, 438, 46-54.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2014.07.043] [PMID: 25128719]
[80]
Dalamaga, M.; Karmaniolas, K.; Nikolaidou, A.; Chamberland, J.; Hsi, A.; Dionyssiou-Asteriou, A.; Mantzoros, C.S. Adiponectin and resistin are associated with risk for myelodysplastic syndrome, independently from the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system. Eur. J. Cancer, 2008, 44(12), 1744-1753.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2008.04.015] [PMID: 18515085]
[81]
Dalamaga, M.; Karmaniolas, K.; Panagiotou, A.; Hsi, A.; Chamberland, J.; Dimas, C.; Lekka, A.; Mantzoros, C.S. Low circulating adiponectin and resistin, but not leptin, levels are associated with multiple myeloma risk: a case-control study. Cancer Causes Control, 2009, 20(2), 193-199.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-008-9233-7] [PMID: 18814045]
[82]
Kumor, A.; Daniel, P.; Pietruczuk, M.; Małecka-Panas, E. Serum leptin, adiponectin, and resistin concentration in colorectal adenoma and carcinoma (CC) patients. Int. J. Colorectal Dis., 2009, 24(3), 275-281.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-008-0605-y] [PMID: 18979105]
[83]
Wittamer, V.; Franssen, J.D.; Vulcano, M.; Mirjolet, J.F.; Le Poul, E.; Migeotte, I.; Brézillon, S.; Tyldesley, R.; Blanpain, C.; Detheux, M.; Mantovani, A.; Sozzani, S.; Vassart, G.; Parmentier, M.; Communi, D. Specific recruitment of antigen-presenting cells by chemerin, a novel processed ligand from human inflammatory fluids. J. Exp. Med., 2003, 198(7), 977-985.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20030382] [PMID: 14530373]
[84]
Erdogan, S.; Yilmaz, F.M.; Yazici, O.; Yozgat, A.; Sezer, S.; Ozdemir, N.; Uysal, S.; Purnak, T.; Sendur, M.A.; Ozaslan, E. Inflammation and chemerin in colorectal cancer. Tumour Biol., 2016, 37(5), 6337-6342.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-015-4483-y] [PMID: 26628300]
[85]
Zhang, J.; Jin, H.C.; Zhu, A.K.; Ying, R.C.; Wei, W.; Zhang, F.J. Prognostic significance of plasma chemerin levels in patients with gastric cancer. Peptides, 2014, 61, 7-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2014.08.007] [PMID: 25152503]
[86]
Lin, W.; Chen, Y.L.; Jiang, L.; Chen, J.K. Reduced expression of chemerin is associated with a poor prognosis and a lowed infiltration of both dendritic cells and natural killer cells in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin. Lab., 2011, 57(11-12), 879-885.
[PMID: 22239017]
[87]
Samal, B.; Sun, Y.; Stearns, G.; Xie, C.; Suggs, S.; McNiece, I. Cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding a novel human pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor. Mol. Cell. Biol., 1994, 14(2), 1431-1437.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.14.2.1431] [PMID: 8289818]
[88]
Moschen, A.R.; Gerner, R.R.; Tilg, H. Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor/NAMPT/visfatin in inflammation and obesity-related disorders. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2010, 16(17), 1913-1920.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161210791208947] [PMID: 20370672]
[89]
Bi, T.Q.; Che, X.M. Nampt/PBEF/visfatin and cancer. Cancer Biol. Ther., 2010, 10(2), 119-125.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cbt.10.2.12581] [PMID: 20647743]
[90]
Gallí, M.; Van Gool, F.; Rongvaux, A.; Andris, F.; Leo, O. The nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase: a molecular link between metabolism, inflammation, and cancer. Cancer Res., 2010, 70(1), 8-11.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-2465] [PMID: 20028851]
[91]
Fazeli, M.S.; Keramati, M.R.; Rahimi, A.; Kazemeini, A.; Banoei, M.M.; Dashti, H.; Fazeli, A.R. Visfatin level in patients with colorectal adenoma. Med. J. Islam. Repub. Iran, 2016, 30, 320-323.
[PMID: 27390690]
[92]
Argiris, A.; Karamouzis, M.V.; Raben, D.; Ferris, R.L. Head and neck cancer. Lancet, 2008, 371(9625), 1695-1709.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60728-X] [PMID: 18486742]
[93]
Mücke, T.; Koschinski, J.; Wolff, K.D.; Kanatas, A.; Mitchell, D.A.; Loeffelbein, D.J.; Deppe, H.; Rau, A. Quality of life after different oncologic interventions in head and neck cancer patients. J. Craniomaxillofac. Surg., 2015, 43(9), 1895-1898.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2015.08.005] [PMID: 26421469]
[94]
Rodrigues, V.C.; Moss, S.M.; Tuomainen, H. Oral cancer in the UK: to screen or not to screen. Oral Oncol., 1998, 34(6), 454-465.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1368-8375(98)00052-9] [PMID: 9930355]
[95]
Young, M.R.I.; Levingston, C.; Johnson, S.D.; Johnson, S.D. Cytokine and adipokine levels in patients with premalignant oral le-sions or in patients with oral cancer who did or did not receive 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 treatment upon cancer diagnosis. Cancers (Basel), 2015, 7(3), 1109-1124.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030827] [PMID: 26120967]
[96]
Gharote, H.P.; Mody, R.N. Estimation of serum leptin in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J. Oral Pathol. Med., 2010, 39(1), 69-73.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0714.2009.00808.x] [PMID: 19817969]
[97]
Kotler, D.P. Cachexia. Ann. Intern. Med., 2000, 133(8), 622-634.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-133-8-200010170-00015] [PMID: 11033592]
[98]
Argiris, A.; Lee, S.C.; Feinstein, T.; Thomas, S.; Branstetter, B.F., IV; Seethala, R.; Wang, L.; Gooding, W.; Grandis, J.R.; Ferris, R.L. Serum biomarkers as potential predictors of antitumor activity of cetuximab-containing therapy for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Oral Oncol., 2011, 47(10), 961-966.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2011.07.034] [PMID: 21889392]
[99]
Lo, H.C.; Yang, C.S.; Tsai, L.J. Simultaneous measurements of serum insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin reflect the postoperative nutrition status of oral tumor patients. Nutrition, 2003, 19(4), 327-331.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-9007(02)01012-2] [PMID: 12679166]
[100]
Yapijakis, C.; Kechagiadakis, M.; Nkenke, E.; Serefoglou, Z.; Avgoustidis, D.; Vylliotis, A.; Perrea, D.; Neukam, F.W.; Patsouris, E.; Vairaktaris, E. Association of leptin -2548G/A and leptin receptor Q223R polymorphisms with increased risk for oral cancer. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol., 2009, 135(4), 603-612.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-008-0494-z] [PMID: 18855010]
[101]
Rodrigues, P.R.; Maia, L.L.; Santos, M.; Peterle, G.T.; Alves, L.U.; Takamori, J.T.; Souza, R.P.; Barbosa, W.M.; Mercante, A.M.; Nunes, F.D.; Carvalho, M.B.; Tajara, E.H.; Louro, I.D.; Silva-Conforti, A.M. Leptin receptor expression and Gln223Arg polymorphism as prognostic markers in oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Genet. Mol. Res., 2015, 14(4), 14979-14988.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4238/2015.November.24.5] [PMID: 26634459]
[102]
Guo, X.H.; Wang, J.Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, M.; Yu, G.Y.; Xiang, R.L.; Li, L.; Yang, N.Y.; Cong, X.; Xu, X.Y.; Li, S.L.; Peng, X.; Wu, L.L. Decreased adiponectin level is associated with aggressive phenotype of tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Sci., 2013, 104(2), 206-213.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.12077] [PMID: 23181352]
[103]
Yu-Duan, T.; Chao-Ping, W.; Chih-Yu, C.; Li-Wen, L.; Tsun-Mei, L.; Chia-Chang, H.; Fu-Mei, C.; Hsien-Chang, L.; Hsia-Fen, H.; Yau-Jiunn, L.; Jer-Yiing, H. Elevated plasma level of visfatin/pre-b cell colony-enhancing factor in male oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Med. Oral Patol. Oral Cir. Bucal, 2013, 18(2), e180-e186.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4317/medoral.18574] [PMID: 23229270]
[104]
Moschen, A.R.; Gerner, R.R.; Tilg, H. Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor/NAMPT/visfatin in inflammation and obesity-related disorders. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2010, 16(17), 1913-1920.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/138161210791208947] [PMID: 20370672]
[105]
Moschen, A.R.; Kaser, A.; Enrich, B.; Mosheimer, B.; Theurl, M.; Niederegger, H.; Tilg, H. Visfatin, an adipocytokine with proinflammatory and immunomodulating properties. J. Immunol., 2007, 178(3), 1748-1758.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.178.3.1748] [PMID: 17237424]
[106]
Wang, N.; Wang, Q.J.; Feng, Y.Y.; Shang, W.; Cai, M. Overexpression of chemerin was associated with tumor angiogenesis and poor clinical outcome in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue. Clin. Oral Investig., 2014, 18(3), 997-1004.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-013-1046-8] [PMID: 23868294]
[107]
Gröschl, M.; Topf, H.G.; Kratzsch, J.; Dötsch, J.; Rascher, W.; Rauh, M. Salivary leptin induces increased expression of growth factors in oral keratinocytes. J. Mol. Endocrinol., 2005, 34(2), 353-366.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/jme.1.01658] [PMID: 15821102]
[108]
Gröschl, M.; Topf, H.G.; Bohlender, J.; Zenk, J.; Klussmann, S.; Dötsch, J.; Rascher, W.; Rauh, M. Identification of ghrelin in human saliva: production by the salivary glands and potential role in proliferation of oral keratinocytes. Clin. Chem., 2005, 51(6), 997-1006.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2004.040667] [PMID: 15790755]
[109]
Aladib, W.; Yoshida, H.; Sato, M. Effect of epidermal growth factor on the cellular proliferation and phenotype of a neoplastic human salivary intercalated duct cell line or its derivatives. Cancer Res., 1990, 50(23), 7650-7661.
[PMID: 1701351]
[110]
Sato, N.; Kyakumoto, S.; Sawano, K.; Ota, M. Proliferative signal transduction by epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (HSG) cell line. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int., 1996, 38(3), 597-606.
[PMID: 8829620]
[111]
Morita, K.; Nogawa, H. EGF-dependent lobule formation and FGF7-dependent stalk elongation in branching morphogenesis of mouse salivary epithelium in vitro. Dev. Dyn., 1999, 215(2), 148-154.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(199906)215:2<148:AID-DVDY7>3.0.CO;2-V] [PMID: 10373019]
[112]
Ogunwobi, O.; Mutungi, G.; Beales, I.L. Leptin stimulates proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in Barrett’s esophageal adenocarcinoma cells by cyclooxygenase-2-dependent, prostaglandin-E2-mediated transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Endocrinology, 2006, 147(9), 4505-4516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2006-0224] [PMID: 16740977]
[113]
Schapher, M.; Wendler, O.; Gröschl, M. Salivary cytokines in cell proliferation and cancer. Clin. Chim. Acta, 2011, 412(19-20), 1740-1748.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2011.06.026] [PMID: 21736875]
[114]
Gröschl, M.; Rauh, M.; Wagner, R.; Neuhuber, W.; Metzler, M.; Tamgüney, G.; Zenk, J.; Schoof, E.; Dörr, H.G.; Blum, W.F.; Rascher, W.; Dötsch, J. Identification of leptin in human saliva. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2001, 86(11), 5234-5239.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jcem.86.11.7998] [PMID: 11701683]
[115]
Randeva, H.S.; Karteris, E.; Lewandowski, K.C.; Sailesh, S.; O’Hare, P.; Hillhouse, E.W. Circadian rhythmicity of salivary leptin in healthy subjects. Mol. Genet. Metab., 2003, 78(3), 229-235.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1096-7192(03)00004-0] [PMID: 12649069]
[116]
Gröschl, M.; Rauh, M.; Dörr, H.G.; Blum, W.F.; Rascher, W.; Dötsch, J. Salivary leptin levels during the menstrual cycle and their relation to progesterone. Fertil. Steril., 2002, 77(6), 1306-1307.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0015-0282(02)03095-9] [PMID: 12057751]
[117]
Lombaert, I.M.; Brunsting, J.F.; Wierenga, P.K.; Kampinga, H.H.; de Haan, G.; Coppes, R.P. Keratinocyte growth factor prevents radiation damage to salivary glands by expansion of the stem/progenitor pool. Stem Cells, 2008, 26(10), 2595-2601.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2007-1034] [PMID: 18669914]
[118]
Kanda, N.; Watanabe, S. Leptin enhances human beta-defensin-2 production in human keratinocytes. Endocrinology, 2008, 149(10), 5189-5198.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2008-0343] [PMID: 18556347]
[119]
Slomiany, B.L.; Slomiany, A. Leptin suppresses Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide interference with salivary mucin synthesis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2003, 312(4), 1099-1103.eCollection 2015.PubMed.
[PMID: 14651985]
[120]
De Matteis, R.; Puxeddu, R.; Riva, A.; Cinti, S. Intralobular ducts of human major salivary glands contain leptin and its receptor. J. Anat., 2002, 201(5), 363-370.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-8782.2002.00106.x] [PMID: 12448771]
[121]
Schapher, M.; Wendler, O.; Gröschl, M.; Schäfer, R.; Iro, H.; Zenk, J. Salivary leptin as a candidate diagnostic marker in salivary gland tumors. Clin. Chem., 2009, 55(5), 914-922.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2008.116939] [PMID: 19299541]
[122]
Zhang, K.Y.; Liu, C.Y.; Hua, L.; Wang, S.L.; Li, J. Clinical evaluation of salivary carbohydrate antigen 125 and leptin in controls and parotid tumours. Oral Dis., 2016, 22(7), 630-638.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.12505] [PMID: 27195940]
[123]
Aydin, S. Ghrelin immunohistochemistry of gastric adenocarcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary gland. Biotech. Histochem., 2005, 80(3-4), 163-168.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10520290500387847] [PMID: 16298902]
[124]
Chen, A.Y.; Jemal, A.; Ward, E.M. Increasing incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer in the United States, 1988-2005. Cancer, 2009, 115(16), 3801-3807.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.24416] [PMID: 19598221]
[125]
Hay, I.D.; Thompson, G.B.; Grant, C.S.; Bergstralh, E.J.; Dvorak, C.E.; Gorman, C.A.; Maurer, M.S.; McIver, B.; Mullan, B.P.; Oberg, A.L.; Powell, C.C.; van Heerden, J.A.; Goellner, J.R. Papillary thyroid carcinoma managed at the Mayo Clinic during six decades (1940-1999): temporal trends in initial therapy and long-term outcome in 2444 consecutively treated patients. World J. Surg., 2002, 26(8), 879-885.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-002-6612-1] [PMID: 12016468]
[126]
Cooper, D.S.; Doherty, G.M.; Haugen, B.R.; Kloos, R.T.; Lee, S.L.; Mandel, S.J.; Mazzaferri, E.L.; McIver, B.; Pacini, F.; Schlumberger, M.; Sherman, S.I.; Steward, D.L.; Tuttle, R.M. Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid, 2009, 19(11), 1167-1214.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2009.0110] [PMID: 19860577]
[127]
Lundgren, C.I.; Hall, P.; Dickman, P.W.; Zedenius, J. Clinically significant prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a population-based, nested case-control study. Cancer, 2006, 106(3), 524-531.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.21653] [PMID: 16369995]
[128]
Engeland, A.; Tretli, S.; Akslen, L.A.; Bjørge, T. Body size and thyroid cancer in two million Norwegian men and women. Br. J. Cancer, 2006, 95(3), 366-370.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6603249] [PMID: 16832414]
[129]
Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Guillas, G.; Tondeur, L.; Kernaleguen, C.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C. Risk of differentiated thyroid cancer in relation to adult weight, height and body shape over life: the French E3N cohort. Int. J. Cancer, 2010, 126(12), 2984-2990.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25066] [PMID: 19950225]
[130]
Kim, W.G.; Park, J.W.; Willingham, M.C.; Cheng, S.Y. Diet-induced obesity increases tumor growth and promotes anaplastic change in thyroid cancer in a mouse model. Endocrinology, 2013, 154(8), 2936-2947.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2013-1128] [PMID: 23748362]
[131]
Nowak, K.W.; Kaczmarek, P.; Mackowiak, P.; Ziolkowska, A.; Albertin, G.; Ginda, W.J.; Trejter, M.; Nussdorfer, G.G.; Malendowicz, L.K. Rat thyroid gland expresses the long form of leptin receptors, and leptin stimulates the function of the gland in euthyroid non-fasted animals. Int. J. Mol. Med., 2002, 9(1), 31-34.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.9.1.31] [PMID: 11744992]
[132]
Lucas, A.; Granada, M.L.; Olaizola, I.; Castell, C.; Julián, M.T.; Pellitero, S.; Roca, J.; Puig-Domingo, M. Leptin and thyrotropin relationship is modulated by smoking status in euthyroid subjects. Thyroid, 2013, 23(8), 964-970.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2012.0506] [PMID: 23528137]
[133]
Marzullo, P.; Minocci, A.; Tagliaferri, M.A.; Guzzaloni, G.; Di Blasio, A.; De Medici, C.; Aimaretti, G.; Liuzzi, A. Investigations of thyroid hormones and antibodies in obesity: leptin levels are associated with thyroid autoimmunity independent of bioanthropometric, hormonal, and weight-related determinants. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2010, 95(8), 3965-3972.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2009-2798] [PMID: 20534769]
[134]
Duntas, L.H.; Biondi, B. The interconnections between obesity, thyroid function, and autoimmunity: the multifold role of leptin. Thyroid, 2013, 23(6), 646-653.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2011.0499] [PMID: 22934923]
[135]
Guzel, S.; Seven, A.; Guzel, E.C.; Buyuk, B.; Celebi, A.; Aydemir, B. Visfatin, Leptin, and TNF-α: Interrelated adipokines in in-sulin-resistant clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism. Endocr. Res., 2013, 38(3), 184-194.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/07435800.2012.760588] [PMID: 23324036]
[136]
Sousa, P.A.; Vaisman, M.; Carneiro, J.R.; Guimarães, L.; Freitas, H.; Pinheiro, M.F.; Liechocki, S.; Monteiro, C.M. Teixeira, Pde.F. Prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodular disease in patients with class III obesity. Arq. Bras. Endocrinol. Metabol, 2013, 57(2), 120-125.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302013000200004] [PMID: 23525289]
[137]
Akinci, M.; Kosova, F.; Cetin, B.; Aslan, S.; Ari, Z.; Cetin, A. Leptin levels in thyroid cancer. Asian J. Surg., 2009, 32(4), 216-223.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1015-9584(09)60397-3] [PMID: 19892624]
[138]
Uddin, S.; Bavi, P.; Siraj, A.K.; Ahmed, M.; Al-Rasheed, M.; Hussain, A.R.; Ahmed, M.; Amin, T.; Alzahrani, A.; Al-Dayel, F.; Abubaker, J.; Bu, R.; Al-Kuraya, K.S. Leptin-R and its association with PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Endocr. Relat. Cancer, 2010, 17(1), 191-202.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1677/ERC-09-0153] [PMID: 20008098]
[139]
Cheng, S.P.; Chi, C.W.; Tzen, C.Y.; Yang, T.L.; Lee, J.J.; Liu, T.P.; Liu, C.L. Clinicopathologic significance of leptin and leptin receptor expressions in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery, 2010, 147(6), 847-853.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2009.11.004 Epub 2009 Dec 31.]
[140]
Cheng, S.P.; Yin, P.H.; Hsu, Y.C.; Chang, Y.C.; Huang, S.Y.; Lee, J.J.; Chi, C.W. Leptin enhances migration of human papillary thyroid cancer cells through the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. Oncol. Rep., 2011, 26(5), 1265-1271.
[PMID: 21750869]
[141]
Rehem, R.A.; Elwafa, W.A.; Elwafa, R.A.; Abdel-Aziz, T.E. Study of serum leptin in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma: correlation with patient and tumor characteristics. World J. Surg., 2014, 38(10), 2621-2627.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-014-2634-8] [PMID: 24867470]
[142]
Marcello, M.A.; Calixto, A.R.; de Almeida, J.F.; Martins, M.B.; Cunha, L.L.; Cavalari, C.A.; Etchebehere, E.C.; da Assumpção, L.V.; Geloneze, B.; Carvalho, A.L.; Ward, L.S. Polymorphism in LEP and LEPR may modify leptin levels and represent risk factors for thyroid cancer. Int. J. Endocrinol., 2015, •••2015173218
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/173218] [PMID: 25810718]
[143]
Cheng, S.P.; Yin, P.H.; Chang, Y.C.; Lee, C.H.; Huang, S.Y.; Chi, C.W. Differential roles of leptin in regulating cell migration in thyroid cancer cells. Oncol. Rep., 2010, 23(6), 1721-1727.
[PMID: 20428831]
[144]
Brunet, A.; Park, J.; Tran, H.; Hu, L.S.; Hemmings, B.A.; Greenberg, M.E. Protein kinase SGK mediates survival signals by phosphorylating the forkhead transcription factor FKHRL1 (FOXO3a). Mol. Cell. Biol., 2001, 21(3), 952-965.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.21.3.952-965.2001] [PMID: 11154281]
[145]
Park, J.T.; Yoo, T.H.; Chang, T.I.; Lee, D.H.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, J.E.; Choi, H.Y.; Kang, S.W.; Han, D.S.; Ryu, D.R. Insulin resistance and lower plasma adiponectin increase malignancy risk in nondiabetic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Metabolism, 2011, 60(1), 121-126.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2010.02.006] [PMID: 20303125]
[146]
Raghay, K.; García-Caballero, T.; Nogueiras, R.; Morel, G.; Beiras, A.; Diéguez, C.; Gallego, R. Ghrelin localization in rat and human thyroid and parathyroid glands and tumours. Histochem. Cell Biol., 2006, 125(3), 239-246.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-005-0044-6] [PMID: 16187069]
[147]
Kanamoto, N.; Akamizu, T.; Hosoda, H.; Hataya, Y.; Ariyasu, H.; Takaya, K.; Hosoda, K.; Saijo, M.; Moriyama, K.; Shimatsu, A.; Kojima, M.; Kangawa, K.; Nakao, K. Substantial production of ghrelin by a human medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2001, 86(10), 4984-4990.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jcem.86.10.7891] [PMID: 11600575]
[148]
Volante, M.; Allia, E.; Fulcheri, E.; Cassoni, P.; Ghigo, E.; Muccioli, G.; Papotti, M. Ghrelin in fetal thyroid and follicular tumors and cell lines: expression and effects on tumor growth. Am. J. Pathol., 2003, 162(2), 645-654.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9440(10)63858-8] [PMID: 12547722]
[149]
Gurgul, E.; Kasprzak, A.; Blaszczyk, A.; Biczysko, M.; Surdyk-Zasada, J.; Seraszek-Jaros, A.; Ruchala, M. Ghrelin and obestatin in thyroid gland - immunohistochemical expression in nodular goiter, papillary and medullary cancer. Folia Histochem. Cytobiol., 2015, 53(1), 19-25.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/FHC.a2015.0004] [PMID: 25765090]
[150]
Karaoglu, A.; Aydin, S.; Dagli, A.F.; Cummings, D.E.; Ozercan, I.H.; Canatan, H.; Ozkan, Y. Expression of obestatin and ghrelin in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 2009, 323(1-2), 113-118.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-008-9969-0] [PMID: 19039650]
[151]
Kubo, A.; Corley, D.A. Body mass index and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus or gastric cardia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2006, 15(5), 872-878.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0860] [PMID: 16702363]
[152]
Kamat, P.; Wen, S.; Morris, J.; Anandasabapathy, S. Exploring the association between elevated body mass index and Barrett’s esophagus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann. Thorac. Surg., 2009, 87(2), 655-662.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2008.08.003] [PMID: 19161814]
[153]
Vucenik, I.; Stains, J.P. Obesity and cancer risk: evidence, mechanisms, and recommendations. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 2012, 1271, 37-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06750.x] [PMID: 23050962]
[154]
Jankowski, J.A.; Harrison, R.F.; Perry, I.; Balkwill, F.; Tselepis, C. Barrett’s metaplasia. Lancet, 2000, 356(9247), 2079-2085.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03411-5] [PMID: 11145505]
[155]
Corley, D.A.; Kubo, A.; Levin, T.R.; Block, G.; Habel, L.; Zhao, W.; Leighton, P.; Quesenberry, C.; Rumore, G.J.; Buffler, P.A. Abdominal obesity and body mass index as risk factors for Barrett’s esophagus. Gastroenterology, 2007, 133(1), 34-41.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2007.04.046] [PMID: 17631128]
[156]
Calle, E.E.; Thun, M.J. Obesity and cancer. Oncogene, 2004, 23(38), 6365-6378.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1207751] [PMID: 15322511]
[157]
Beales, I.L.; Ogunwobi, O.O. Leptin synergistically enhances the anti-apoptotic and growth-promoting effects of acid in OE33 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells in culture. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 2007, 274(1-2), 60-68.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2007.05.017] [PMID: 17618045]
[158]
Ogunwobi, O.; Mutungi, G.; Beales, I.L. Leptin stimulates proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in Barrett’s esophageal adenocarcinoma cells by cyclooxygenase-2-dependent, prostaglandin-E2-mediated transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Endocrinology, 2006, 147(9), 4505-4516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2006-0224] [PMID: 16740977]
[159]
Francois, F.; Roper, J.; Goodman, A.J.; Pei, Z.; Ghumman, M.; Mourad, M.; de Perez, A.Z.; Perez-Perez, G.I.; Tseng, C.H.; Blaser, M.J. The association of gastric leptin with oesophageal inflammation and metaplasia. Gut, 2008, 57(1), 16-24.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2007.131672] [PMID: 17761783]
[160]
Ogunwobi, O.O.; Beales, I.L. Leptin stimulates the proliferation of human oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells via HB-EGF and Tgfalpha mediated transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. Br. J. Biomed. Sci., 2008, 65(3), 121-127.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09674845.2008.11732814] [PMID: 18986098]
[161]
Kendall, B.J.; Macdonald, G.A.; Hayward, N.K.; Prins, J.B.; Brown, I.; Walker, N.; Pandeya, N.; Green, A.C.; Webb, P.M.; Whiteman, D.C. Leptin and the risk of Barrett’s oesophagus. Gut, 2008, 57(4), 448-454.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2007.131243] [PMID: 18178609]
[162]
Thompson, O.M.; Beresford, S.A.; Kirk, E.A.; Bronner, M.P.; Vaughan, T.L. Serum leptin and adiponectin levels and risk of Barrett’s esophagus and intestinal metaplasia of the gastroesophageal junction. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2010, 18(11), 2204-2211.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2009.508] [PMID: 20111023]
[163]
Cook, M.B.; Wild, C.P.; Everett, S.M.; Hardie, L.J.; Bani-Hani, K.E.; Martin, I.G.; Forman, D. Mortality risks associated with Barrett’s oesophagus. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2008, 27(9), 852-853.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2036.2008.03645.x] [PMID: 18380800]
[164]
Pohl, H.; Wrobel, K.; Bojarski, C.; Voderholzer, W.; Sonnenberg, A.; Rösch, T.; Baumgart, D.C. Risk factors in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2013, 108(2), 200-207.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2012.387] [PMID: 23247577]
[165]
de Jonge, P.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Kuipers, E.J.; Honkoop, P.; Wolters, L.M.; Kerkhof, M.; van Dekken, H.; Siersema, P.D. Risk factors for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2006, 101(7), 1421-1429.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2006.00626.x] [PMID: 16863542]
[166]
Duggan, C.; Onstad, L.; Hardikar, S.; Blount, P.L.; Reid, B.J.; Vaughan, T.L. Association between markers of obesity and progression from Barrett’s esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma. Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2013, 11(8), 934-943.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.017] [PMID: 23466711]
[167]
Rubenstein, J.H.; Dahlkemper, A.; Kao, J.Y.; Zhang, M.; Morgenstern, H.; McMahon, L.; Inadomi, J.M. A pilot study of the association of low plasma adiponectin and Barrett’s esophagus. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2008, 103(6), 1358-1364.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2008.01823.x] [PMID: 18510610]
[168]
Rubenstein, J.H.; Kao, J.Y.; Madanick, R.D.; Zhang, M.; Wang, M.; Spacek, M.B.; Donovan, J.L.; Bright, S.D.; Shaheen, N.J. Association of adiponectin multimers with Barrett’s oesophagus. Gut, 2009, 58(12), 1583-1589.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.2008.171553] [PMID: 19570765]
[169]
Ogunwobi, O.O.; Beales, I.L. Globular adiponectin, acting via adiponectin receptor-1, inhibits leptin-stimulated oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell proliferation. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 2008, 285(1-2), 43-50. b
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2008.01.023] [PMID: 18313838]
[170]
Konturek, P.C.; Burnat, G.; Rau, T.; Hahn, E.G.; Konturek, S. Effect of adiponectin and ghrelin on apoptosis of Barrett adenocarcinoma cell line. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2008, 53(3), 597-605.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-007-9922-1] [PMID: 17763959]
[171]
Nakajima, T.E.; Yamada, Y.; Hamano, T.; Furuta, K.; Oda, I.; Kato, H.; Kato, K.; Hamaguchi, T.; Shimada, Y. Adipo-cytokines and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol., 2010, 136(2), 261-266.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-009-0657-6] [PMID: 19693538]
[172]
Kumar, J.D.; Holmberg, C.; Kandola, S.; Steele, I.; Hegyi, P.; Tiszlavicz, L.; Jenkins, R.; Beynon, R.J.; Peeney, D.; Giger, O.T.; Alqahtani, A.; Wang, T.C.; Charvat, T.T.; Penfold, M.; Dockray, G.J.; Varro, A. Increased expression of chemerin in squamous esophageal cancer myofibroblasts and role in recruitment of mesenchymal stromal cells. PLoS One, 2014, 9(7)e104877
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104877] [PMID: 25127029]
[173]
Quante, M.; Wang, T.C. Stem cells in gastroenterology and hepatology. Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2009, 6(12), 724-737.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2009.195] [PMID: 19884893]
[174]
Quante, M.; Tu, S.P.; Tomita, H.; Gonda, T.; Wang, S.S.; Takashi, S.; Baik, G.H.; Shibata, W.; Diprete, B.; Betz, K.S.; Friedman, R.; Varro, A.; Tycko, B.; Wang, T.C. Bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts contribute to the mesenchymal stem cell niche and promote tumor growth. Cancer Cell, 2011, 19(2), 257-272.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2011.01.020] [PMID: 21316604]
[175]
Studeny, M.; Marini, F.C.; Dembinski, J.L.; Zompetta, C.; Cabreira-Hansen, M.; Bekele, B.N.; Champlin, R.E.; Andreeff, M. Mesenchymal stem cells: potential precursors for tumor stroma and targeted-delivery vehicles for anticancer agents. J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 2004, 96(21), 1593-1603.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djh299] [PMID: 15523088]
[176]
Thomas, S.J.; Almers, L.; Schneider, J.; Graham, J.E.; Havel, P.J.; Corley, D.A. Ghrelin and leptin have a complex relationship with risk of barrett’s esophagus. Dig. Dis. Sci., 2016, 61(1), 70-79.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-015-3867-6] [PMID: 26396004]
[177]
Murphy, G.; Kamangar, F.; Albanes, D.; Stanczyk, F.Z.; Weinstein, S.J.; Taylor, P.R.; Virtamo, J.; Abnet, C.C.; Dawsey, S.M.; Freedman, N.D. Serum ghrelin is inversely associated with risk of subsequent oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Gut, 2012, 61(11), 1533-1537.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2011-300653] [PMID: 22180062]
[178]
Omoto, I.; Matsumoto, M.; Uchikado, Y.; Kita, Y.; Sakurai, T.; Sasaki, K.; Setoyama, T.; Okumura, H.; Owaki, T.; Ishigami, S.; Natsugoe, S. Immunohistochemical evidence of association between ghrelin expression and tumor growth in esophageal carcinoma. Anticancer Res., 2014, 34(6), 2727-2733.
[PMID: 24922633]
[179]
Hiura, Y.; Takiguchi, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Takahashi, T.; Kurokawa, Y.; Yamasaki, M.; Nakajima, K.; Miyata, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Mori, M.; Kangawa, K.; Doki, Y. Effects of ghrelin administration during chemotherapy with advanced esophageal cancer patients: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 study. Cancer, 2012, 118(19), 4785-4794.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.27430] [PMID: 22282373]
[180]
de Martel, C.; Haggerty, T.D.; Corley, D.A.; Vogelman, J.H.; Orentreich, N.; Parsonnet, J. Serum ghrelin levels and risk of subsequent adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2007, 102(6), 1166-1172.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01116.x] [PMID: 17378911]
[181]
Cooper, J.S.; Porter, K.; Mallin, K.; Hoffman, H.T.; Weber, R.S.; Ang, K.K.; Gay, E.G.; Langer, C.J. National Cancer Database report on cancer of the head and neck: 10-year update. Head Neck, 2009, 31(6), 748-758.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.21022] [PMID: 19189340]
[182]
Gallina, S.; Sireci, F.; Lorusso, F.D.I.; Benedetto, D.V.; Speciale, R.; Marchese, D.; Costantino, C.; Napoli, G.; Tessitore, V.; Cucco, D.; Leone, A.; Bonaventura, G.; Uzzo, M.L.; Spatola, G.F. The immunohistochemical peptidergic expression of leptin is associated with recurrence of malignancy in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Ital., 2015, 35(1), 15-22.
[PMID: 26015646]
[183]
Guan, G.; Zhang, D.; Zheng, Y.; Wen, L.; Yu, D.; Lu, Y.; Zhao, Y. microRNA-423-3p promotes tumor progression via modulation of AdipoR2 in laryngeal carcinoma. Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol., 2014, 7(9), 5683-5691.
[PMID: 25337209]
[184]
Trevellin, E.; Scarpa, M.; Carraro, A.; Lunardi, F.; Kotsafti, A.; Porzionato, A.; Saadeh, L.; Cagol, M.; Alfieri, R.; Tedeschi, U.; Calabrese, F.; Castoro, C.; Vettor, R. Esophageal adenocarcinoma and obesity: peritumoral adipose tissue plays a role in lymph node invasion. Oncotarget, 2015, 6(13), 11203-11215.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.3587] [PMID: 25857300]


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 25
Year: 2019
Page: [4726 - 4748]
Pages: 23
DOI: 10.2174/0929867325666180713154505
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 19
HTML: 1