Initiating anti-apoptotic signaling or triggering cell death depends to a great extent on the nature or
source of cellular stress and cell type. Interplay between each stress response eventually determines the fate of
stressed cell. Numerous factors induce cell death by a number of pathways including apoptosis, autophagy and
necrosis. Not surprisingly, some of the pathways are interrelated to each other through a mediator that could
articulate the entire mechanism. The present review attempts to consolidate all the pathways included in intrinsic
cellular stress such as oxidative stress and autophagy, endoplasmic reticular stress (ERS) and mitophagy and
apoptosis as fate in cell stress. These stress responses are a hallmark of numerous diseases including neurodegenerative
diseases, diabetes and cancer. Understanding the cross-talk between different intrinsic cell stress responses
will help to develop new therapeutic targets and hence lead to the development of new therapeutics.
Keywords: Cell stress, apoptosis, oxidative stress, ER stress, autophagy, mitophagy, cell signalling.
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