Background & Objective: Autism is a developmental disorder that manifests itself in early
childhood. Autism is characterized by inability to acquire social skills, repetitive behaviors and failure
of speech and nonverbal communication development. Recent studies have shown that genetic mutations
occur in majority of individuals with autism. These mutations cause a variety of disorders that
ultimately lead to brain disorders. It is noteworthy that all mutations do not follow the same pattern.
They encompass various kinds of mutations. Autism needs to be treated during childhood as untreated
patients usually do not progress to the later stages of development. In this regard, many studies have
been performed and numerous treatments have been proposed to improve the outcome of this disease.
Conclusion: In this review, we have discussed new advancements made in understanding the pathophysiology
of autism. Furthermore, we have also discussed new treatments which have been proposed
and have successfully translated affected children. Overall, it is concluded that new advances have
largely helped these patients.
Keywords: Autism, nutrition, immune system, mutation, gut-brain, brain stimulation.
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