Silver Nanoparticles-Chitosan Composite Embedded Graphite Screen-Printed Electrodes as a Novel Electrochemical Platform in the Measurement of Trace Level Nitrite: Application to Milk Powder Samples

Author(s): Suma B. Patri, Prashanth Shivappa Adarakatti, Pandurangappa Malingappa*.

Journal Name: Current Analytical Chemistry

Volume 15 , Issue 1 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Abstract:

Background: Nitrites can exert acute toxic effects in humans. It is widely used as a preservative in dairy and meat products. The nitrites form N-nitrosamines, which are potential carcinogens and cause detrimental health effects. Herein we report a disposable graphite screen-printed sensor developed using silver metal nano particle embedded chitosan composite in the quantification of nitrite at trace level.

Methods: Conventional methods possess various limitations. Electrochemical methods provide an ideal platform for trace nitrite analysis. The prepared composite has been characterized by UV-Visible spectrometry, SEM, EDS and XRD techniques. The proposed sensor has been fabricated by using graphite screen-printed electrodes through drop coating of the composite material. The redox behavior and its application of the fabricated electrode have been studied using cyclic and anodic stripping voltammetric methods.

Results: Graphite screen-printed electrodes after modification have been used to identify the electrocatalytic behavior of nitrite oxidation in an aqueous medium. All the parameters influencing the analytical signal have been optimized and incorporated in the recommended procedure. The proposed sensor has been used to measure the nitrite levels from commercially available milk powder samples and the results have been compared with the standard protocol. The results of the proposed sensor are in good agreement with the standard protocol.

Conclusion: Ag metal nanoparticles have been embedded in chitosan matrix and used as a composite material in the chemical modification of graphite screen-printed electrodes. GSPEs are easy to fabricate. They provide wide linear working range i.e. 30 - 1140 µM of nitrite. The sensor is highly stable, reproducible and provides a very low detection limit of 1.84 µM. The method has been applied to measure trace level nitrite from milk powder samples.

Keywords: Cyclic voltammetry, graphite screen-printed electrodes (GSPEs), milk powder and scanning electron microscopy, nitrite, silver metal nanoparticles doped chitosan (AgNPs/CS), toxic effects.

[1]
Cammack, R.; Joannou, C.L.; Cui, X-Y.; Torres Martinez, C.; Maraj, S.R.; Hughes, M.N. Nitrite and nitrosyl compounds in food preservation. Biochimica. et Biophysica. Acta. (BBA) -. Bioenergetics, 1999, 1411(2), 475-488.
[2]
Sofos, J.N.; Busta, F.F.; Bhothipaksa, K.; Allen, C.E. Sodium nitrite and sorbic acid effects on clostridium botulinum toxin formation in chicken Frankfurter-Type Emulsions. J. Food Sci., 1979, 44(3), 668-675.
[3]
Christiansen, L.N.; Johnston, R.W.; Kautter, D.A.; Howard, J.W.; Aunan, W.J. Effect of nitrite and nitrate on toxin production by clostridium botulinum and on nitrosamine formation in perishable canned comminuted cured meat. Appl. Microbiol., 1973, 25(3), 357-362.
[4]
Lijinsky, W. N-Nitrosamines as environmental carcinogens.. In NNitrosamines, American Chemical Society, 1979. , 101, 165-173.
[5]
Magee, P.N. Toxicity of nitrosamines: Their possible Human Health Hazards. Food Chem. Toxicol., 1971, 9(2), 207-218.
[6]
Vittozzi, L. Toxicology of nitrates and nitrites. Food Addit. Contam., 1992, 9(5), 579-585.
[7]
Boink, A.; Speijers, G. In health effects of Nitrates and Nitrites, a review. Int. Soc. Hort. Sci; ISHS: Leuven, Belgium, 2001, pp. 29-36.
[8]
Forman, D.; Al-Dabbagh, S.; Doll, R. Nitrates, nitrites and gastric cancer in Great Britain. Nature, 1985, 313(6004), 620-625.
[9]
Swann, P.F. The toxicology of Nitrate, nitrite and n-Nitroso Compounds. J. Sci. Food Agric., 1975, 26(11), 1761-1770.
[10]
Moorcroft, M.J.; Davis, J.; Compton, R.G. Detection and determination of Nitrate and nitrite: A review. Talanta, 2001, 54(5), 785-803.
[11]
Wang, Q-H.; Yu, L-J.; Liu, Y.; Lin, L.; Lu, R.G.; Zhu, J.P.; He, L.; Lu, Z.L. Methods for the detection and determination of nitrite and nitrate: A review. Talanta, 2017, 165, 709-720.
[12]
Bertotti, M.; Pletcher, D. Amperometric determination of nitrite via reaction with iodide using microelectrodes. Anal. Chim. Acta, 1997, 337(1), 49-55.
[13]
Parsaei, M.; Asadi, Z.; Khodadoust, S. A Sensitive electrochemical sensor for rapid and selective determination of nitrite ion in water samples using modified carbon paste electrode with a newly synthesized Cobalt(II)-Schiff base complex and Magnetite nanospheres. Sens. Actuators B Chem., 2015, 220, 1131-1138.
[14]
Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Sheng, Q.; Zheng, J. Electrochemical sensor for sensitive determination of nitrite based on the CuS-MWCNT nanocomposites. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2016, 769, 118-123.
[15]
Zhou, L.; Wang, J.P.; Gai, L.; Li, D.J.; Li, Y.B. An amperometric sensor based on ionic liquid and carbon nanotube modified composite electrode for the determination of nitrite in milk. Sens. Actuators B Chem., 2013, 181, 65-70.
[16]
Taleat, Z.; Khoshroo, A.; Mazloum-Ardakani, M. Screen-printed electrodes for Biosensing: A review (2008-2013). Mikrochim. Acta, 2014, 181(9), 865-891.
[17]
Chang, J.L.; Zen, J.M. Disposable Screen-Printed Edge Band Ultramicroelectrodes for the determination of trace amounts of nitrite ion. Electroanalysis, 2006, 18(10), 941-946.
[18]
Banks, Craig. E.; Foster, Christopher, W.; Kadara, Rashid, O. Screen printing electrochemical Architechures - Briefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Springer , 2015.
[19]
Adarakatti, P.S.; Malingappa, P. Amino-calixarene-modified graphitic carbon as a novel electrochemical interface for simultaneous measurement of lead and cadmium ions at picomolar level. J. Solid State Electrochem., 2016, 20(12), 3349-3358.
[20]
Tang, Y.C.; Gao, X.Y.; Huang, Y.B.; Yu, Z.; Shao, Y.F.; Zi, Y.Q. Study of Chitosan-TiO2 nanoparticles composite film modified electrode for the electrochemical oxidation behavior of nitrite. Asian J. Chem., 2011, 23, 2053-2056.
[21]
Yang, S.; Liu, X.; Zeng, X.; Xia, B.; Gu, J.; Luo, S.; Mai, N.; Wei, W. Fabrication of nano-copper/carbon nanotubes/chitosan film by one-step electrodeposition and its sensitive determination of nitrite. Sens. Actuators B Chem., 2010, 145(2), 762-768.
[22]
Khan, R.; Kaushik, A.; Solanki, P.R.; Ansari, A.A.; Pandey, M.K.; Malhotra, B.D. Zinc oxide nanoparticles-chitosan composite film for cholesterol biosensor. Anal. Chim. Acta, 2008, 616(2), 207-213.
[23]
Ye, D.; Luo, L.; Ding, Y.; Chen, Q.; Liu, X. A novel Nitrite Sensor based on Graphene/Polypyrrole/Chitosan nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode. Analyst, 2011, 136(21), 4563-4569.
[24]
Min , Zhang. F. C., Feng Gan, Electrochemical nitrite nanosensor Based on Au Nanoparticles/Graphene Nanocomposites. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2015, 10, 5905-5913.
[25]
Bharath, G.; Madhu, R.; Chen, S.M.; Veeramani, V.; Mangalaraj, D.; Ponpandian, N. Solvent-free mechanochemical synthesis of graphene oxide and Fe3O4-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for sensitive detection of nitrite. J. Mater. Chem. A , 2015, 3(30), 15529-15539.
[26]
Pei, J.; Li, X.Y. Electrochemical study and flow-injection amperometric detection of trace NO2− at CuPtCl6 chemically modified electrode. Talanta, 2000, 51(6), 1107-1115.
[27]
Meng, Z.; Liu, B.; Zheng, J.; Sheng, Q.; Zhang, H. Electrodeposition of cobalt oxide nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes, and their electrocatalytic properties for nitrite electrooxidation. Mikrochim. Acta, 2011, 175(3), 251-257.
[28]
Marlinda, A.R.; Pandikumar, A.; Yusoff, N.; Huang, N.M.; Lim, H.N. Electrochemical sensing of nitrite using a glassy carbon electrode modified with reduced functionalized graphene oxide decorated with flower-like zinc oxide. Mikrochim. Acta, 2015, 182(5), 1113-1122.
[29]
Welch, C.M.; Compton, R.G. The use of nanoparticles in electroanalysis: a review. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 2006, 384(3), 601-619.
[30]
Ikhsan, N.I.; Rameshkumar, P.; Pandikumar, A.; Shahid, M.; Huang, N.M.; Kumar, S.; Lim, H.N. Facile synthesis of graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite and its modified electrode for enhanced electrochemical detection of nitrite ions. Talanta, 2015, 144, 908-914.
[31]
de Lima, C.A.; da Silva, P.S.; Spinelli, A. Chitosan-stabilized silver nanoparticles for voltammetric detection of nitrocompounds. Sens. Actuators B Chem., 2014, 196, 39-45.
[32]
Murugadoss, A.; Arun, C.A. ‘green’ chitosan-silver nanoparticle composite as a heterogeneous as well as micro-heterogeneous catalyst. Nanotechnology, 2008, 19(1), 015603.
[33]
Mulfinger, L.; Solomon, S.D.; Bahadory, M.; Jeyarajasingam, A.V.; Rutkowsky, S.A.; Boritz, C. Synthesis and study of silver nanoparticles. J. Chem. Educ., 2007, 84(2), 322.
[34]
Compton, F.W.C.a.R.G. Contrasting Underpotential Depositions of Lead and Cadmium on Silver Macroelectrodes and Silver Nanoparticle Electrode Arrays. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2010, 5, 407-413.
[35]
Rastogi, P.K.; Ganesan, V.; Krishnamoorthi, S. A promising electrochemical sensing platform based on a silver nanoparticles decorated copolymer for sensitive nitrite determination. J. Mater. Chem A., 2014, 2(4), 933-943.
[36]
Bard, A.J.; Faulkner, L.R. . Electrochemical methods- Fundamentals and applications, 2nd ed.; Wiley: India edition,, 2006.
[37]
Wang, Z.; Liao, F.; Guo, T.; Yang, S.; Zeng, C. Synthesis of crystalline silver nanoplates and their application for detection of nitrite in foods. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2012, 664, 135-138.
[38]
Pal, M.; Ganesan, V. Electrochemical determination of nitrite using silver nanoparticles modified electrode. Analyst, 2010, 135(10), 2711-2716.
[39]
Piela, B.; Wrona, P.K. Oxidation of nitrites on solid electrodes: I. Determination of the reaction mechanism on the pure electrode surface. J. Electrochem. Soc., 2002, 149(2), E55-E63.
[40]
Manning, P.B.; Coulter, S.T.; Jenness, R. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in milk and dry milk products. J. Dairy Sci., 1968, 51(11), 1725-1730.
[41]
Rice, E.W.; Baird, R.B.; Eaton, A.D.; Clesceri, L.S. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. American Public health Association, American water works association, Water environment Federation, 22 Edition2012.
[42]
Zhang, M.; Cheng, F.; Gan, F. Electrochemical nitrite nanosensor Based on Au Nanoparticles/Graphene Nanocomposites. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 2015, 10, 5905-5913.


Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

VOLUME: 15
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2019
Page: [56 - 65]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/1573411014666180703142146
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 25
HTML: 2

Special-new-year-discount