In the United States, tick-borne illnesses account for a significant number of patients
that have been seen and treated by health care facilities. This in turn, has resulted in a significant
morbidity and mortality and economic costs to the country.
The distribution of these illnesses is geographically variable and is related to the climate as well.
Many of these illnesses can be diagnosed and treated successfully, if recognized and started on
appropriate antimicrobial therapy early in the disease process. Patient with illnesses such as Lyme
disease, Wet Nile illness can result in chronic debilitating diseases if not recognized early and
This paper covers illnesses such as Lyme disease, West Nile illness, Rocky Mountain Spotted fever,
Ehrlichia, Tularemia, typhus, mosquito borne illnesses such as enteroviruses, arboviruses as
well as arthropod and rodent borne virus infections as well. It covers the epidemiology, clinical
features and diagnostic tools needed to make the diagnosis and treat these patients as well.