Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major public health concern world-wide. The
increasing global burden of TB is linked to HIV infection. HIV-TB coinfection has also
conditioned clinical aspects of the TB. Since the HIV is beginning in the 1980s, the HIV infection
poses a significant challenge in global TB control.
Objective: In this review we focused on the challenges of epidemiological and clinical feature of
tuberculosis presented by the HIV coinfection.
Method: The article consists of a summary of the most important effects presented by the HIV
coinfection on epidemiological and clinical feature of tuberculosis. The article analyzes and
summary the causes for these challenges.
Results: The major challenges to strategy of TB control and clinical feature of TB-HIV coinfection
are presented in this paper.
Conclusion: HIV/TB co-infection is synergic, interactive and reciprocal with significant impact.
The infection of HIV and Mtb affect each other and the breakdown the immune function in
TB/HIV coinfected individual. HIV infection has changed the strategy of TB control, however
HIV increases global burden of TB, the reduction in the TB incidence rate is far from sufficient.
Atypically clinical manifestations in TB/HIV co-infected patients and increased MDR-TB and
XDR-TB contribute to the challenges in the diagnosis and treatment. Increased complexity of
managing patients requires expertise in the clinical m knowledge. The focused efforts to control
HIV-related TB are of great urgency. These findings will provide insight into the prevention,
detection and treatment of tuberculosis and will guide advances towards tuberculosis control.