Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancer in worldwide and inflammatory
reactions may be the major risk factors for it. Diet has a potential role in the running of inflammatory
reactions. Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) is a tool that can assess the inflammatory potential
of a diet.
Objective: Study of the effect of Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and body composition on the risk
of prostate cancer was the aim of this research.
Methods: We assessed the ability of Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) to predict prostate cancer in a
case-control study conducted in Kermanshah, Iran in 2016. The study included 50 cases with primary
prostate cancer and 150 healthy controls. Anthropometric indices were measured by Bioelectric Impedance
Analysis (BIA). The DII was computed based on the intake of 32 nutrients assessed using a
147-items food frequency questionnaire. The multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the
odds ratio, with DII expressed as a dichotomous variable.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences in body composition between case and control
groups, but participants with DII > 0.80 had significant differences in BMI, LBM, SLM, MBF and
TBW versus participant with DII ≤ 0.80. Also, men with higher DII scores were at increased risk of
prostate cancer [OR: 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.28-2.44] and categorical variable [OR DII>0.80 vs ≤
0.80: 3.81; 95% confidence interval: 1.49-9.75].
Conclusion: These findings suggest that a pro-inflammatory diet is a risk factor for prostate cancer
and also can have the impact on body composition.