Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a beta herpesvirus that inflicts an active infection in the
fetus and immunosuppressive patients. The virus encodes many proteins that work together with cellular
factors to achieve virus replication. In addition to vaccines, antiviral drugs can be deployed to manipulate
how the virus replicates and minimize its pathogenicity. The five antiviral drugs approved by the Food
and Drug Administration (FDA) have shown adverse reactions and the antiviral drug resistance were
reported. Hence, this warrants the need for urgent development of a novel antiviral drug. Detailed understanding
of the virus replication steps and how cellular signals interact with these steps will be key for
pharmacological developments of for anti HCMV drugs. This review summarized all the drugs that target
the virus proteins and cell signals that mediate CMV replication.
Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, immunosuppressive patients, congenital infection, ganciclovir, herpesvirus, fomivirsen.
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