Background: Thrombus is composed of two main substances i.e. red blood cells and
aggregated platelets which make a web of inter-connected fibrin proteins. During injury it prevents
bleeding, so it is very useful but it can be very dangerous if it is produced in healthy blood vessels
and block the blood flow through it. Mural thrombi attaches with the blood vessels but in most
cases do not block it completely. Venoms are an incredible source of peptides having amazing bioactivities
with varying number of amino acid residues. Anticoagulant venom peptides however
inhibit the enzyme taking part in coagulation like factor Xa and thrombin. The anticoagulant potential
of venom peptides have also been reported by the degradation of the fibrin or fibrinogen related
to serine or metalloproteases. Designing and development of numerous therapeutic agents or lead
moleculesmostly for cardiovascular diseases have been motivated from toxins/proteins from snake
venoms. For example, disintegrins, a large family of platelet aggregation inhibitors found in viperid
and crotalid snake venoms were the basis for designing of platelet aggregation inhibitors such as
eptifibatide and tirofiban.
Conclusion: Ancrod isolated from Malayan pit viper venom can cause reduction in level of blood
fibrinogen and has been effectively tried in various ischemic conditions, including stroke. In order
to search for novel lead molecules, the emphasis should be on isolation and characterization of
pharmacologically active snake venoms proteins affecting blood coagulation and platelet aggregation.
In this review an attempt has been made to recapitulates and discuss venoms of different animals
and arthropod having anticoagulant peptides for their potential use in therapeutics and diagnostics.
Keywords: Hemostasis, thrombogenesis, anticoagulant peptides, snake venom, scorpion venom, deep-veinthrombosis.
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