Arterial hypertension is a progressive cardiovascular syndrome arising from complex and
interrelated etiologies. The human microbiome refers to the community of microorganisms that live
in or on the human body. They influence human physiology by interfering in several processes such
as providing nutrients and vitamins in Phase I and Phase II drug metabolism. The human gut microbiota
is represented mainly by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and to a lesser degree by Actinobacteria
and Proteobacteria, with each individual harbouring at least 160 such species. Gut microbiota
contributes to blood pressure homeostasis and the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension through
production, modification, and degradation of a variety of microbial-derived bioactive metabolites.
Animal studies and to a lesser degree human research has unmasked relative mechanisms, mainly
through the effect of certain microbiome metabolites and their receptors, outlining this relationship.
Interventions to utilize these pathways, with probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics and fecal microbiome
transplantation have shown promising results. Personalized microbiome-based disease prediction
and treatment responsiveness seem futuristic. Undoubtedly, a long way of experimental and clinical
research should be pursued to elucidate this novel, intriguing and very promising horizon.
Keywords: Gut microbiome, gut flora, microorganisms, arterial hypertension, short chain fatty acids, probiotics, prebiotics.
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