Background and Objective: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is rare, but represents the deadliest
type of thyroid cancer that is characterised by a rapid course. Diagnosis is usually made at a late
stage, when more than half of the patients have distant metastasis. Our main purpose is to review the
current information on anaplastic thyroid aetiology and risk factors that might contribute to an earlier
diagnosis as well as to give new perspectives regarding the most recent treatment options and future
Results: The treatment options are mainly palliative and lack efficacy. In particular, the multikinase
inhibitors, BRAF inhibitors and other directed agents aim to stabilize the tumour growth and might
enable a radical surgery with curative intent.
Conclusion: With the mutational landscape investigation and the discovery of new targets, new directed
treatments are being tried. Considering the current tendency to be more conservative regarding
the multinodular goiter approach and some differentiated thyroid carcinomas treatment, it is vital to
understand that it might evolve to anaplastic cancers.