Background: Diabetes, with an increased prevalence and various progressive complications, has become a
significant global health challenge. The concrete mechanisms responsible for the development of diabetes still remain
incompletely unknown, although substantial researches have been conducted to search for the effective therapeutic
targets. This review aims to reveal the novel roles of Xenobiotic Nuclear Receptors (XNRs), including the
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR), the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), the Liver X Receptor (LXR),
the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) and the Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR), in the development of diabetes
and provide potential strategies for research and treatment of metabolic diseases.
Methods: We retrieved a large number of original data about these five XNRs and organized to focus on their recently
discovered functions in diabetes and its complications.
Results: Increasing evidences have suggested that PPAR, FXR, LXR ,PXR and CAR are involved in the development
of diabetes and its complications through different mechanisms, including the regulation of glucose and lipid
metabolism, insulin and inflammation response and related others.
Conclusion: PPAR, FXR, LXR, PXR, and CAR, as the receptors for numerous natural or synthetic compounds, may
be the most effective therapeutic targets in the treatment of metabolic diseases.