A Comprehensive Review of Power Quality Issues and Measurement for Grid-Integrated Wind Turbines

Author(s): Ahmed F. Zobaa*, Ibrahim Ahmed, Shady H.E. Abdel Aleem.

Journal Name: Recent Advances in Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Formerly Recent Patents on Electrical & Electronic Engineering

Volume 12 , Issue 3 , 2019

Become EABM
Become Reviewer

Graphical Abstract:


Background: Renewable energy generation using wind energy has emerged worldwide and has opened up significant new markets in electrical power generation. However, different factors that affect power quality performance of Wind Turbine (WT) applications such as wind speed fluctuation and use of power electronic based devices have been presented due to the rapid increase of WT installations.

Methods: Accordingly, it is worth to measure, assess and evaluate the quality of the generated power of these WTs in order to ensure their compliance with the grid-integration conditions. In this work, first, a general classification of WTs and their operating principle is reviewed. Because variable speed WTs are frequently used in today’s power systems, much attention was paid to this type of turbines. Second, the various power quality aspects caused due to the integration of the wind energy systems into the grid were presented and discussed. Flickers, harmonic distortion, response to voltage dip, active power, and reactive power requirements, fault-ride through and short-circuit current contribution were the addressed power quality problems.

Results: Further, the study pointed out the need for a unified evaluation process to assess the power quality performance of the grid-connected wind systems.

Conclusion: Also, it was concluded that success in integrating more wind energy systems hinges on accurate power quality performance assessment.

Keywords: Active power control, fault-ride through, flicker, harmonic distortion, reactive power control, renewable energy, power quality, wind turbines.

A. Maleki, and M.A. Rosen, "Design of a cost-effective on-grid hybrid wind-hydrogen based CHP system using a modified heuristic approach", Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 42, no. 25, pp. 15973-15989, 2017.
H. Hafeznia, F. Pourfayaz, and A. Maleki, "An assessment of Iran’s natural gas potential for transition toward low-carbon economy", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 79, pp. 71-81, 2017.
A. Maleki, M.G. Khajeh, and M. Ameri, "Optimal sizing of a grid independent hybrid renewable energy system incorporating resource uncertainty, and load uncertainty", Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 83, pp. 514-524, 2016.
A. Beddar, H. Bouzekri, and B. Babess, "Control of grid connected wind energy conversion system using improved fractional order PI controller: Real time implementation", Recent Adv. Electr. Electron. Eng., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 132-141, 2016.
H.S.K. El-Goharey, W.A. Omran, A.T.M. Taha, and S.M. El-Samanoudy, "Voltage stability investigation of the egyptian grid with high penetration level of wind energy", Recent Adv. Commun. Netw. Technol., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 78-89, 2015.
S.H.E. Abdel Aleem, A.F. Zobaa, and H.M. Abdel Mageed, "Assessment of energy credits for the enhancement of the egyptian green pyramid rating system", Energy Policy, vol. 87, pp. 407-416, 2015.
S. Sakar, M.E. Balci, S.H.E.A. Aleem, and A.F. Zobaa, "Hosting capacity assessment and improvement for photovoltaic-based distributed generation in distorted distribution networks", In: IEEE 16th International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), Florence, Italy, 2016, pp. 1-6.
M.A. El-Sharkawi, Wind energy: an introduction., 1st ed CRC Press, 2015.
A. Rashad, S. Kamel, F. Jurado, and S.H.E. Abdel Aleem, “Stability of distribution networks with wind turbines BT- electric distribution network management and control”, A. Arefi, F. Shahnia, and G. Ledwich, Eds. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2018, pp. 281- 308.
S.H.E. Abdel Aleem, A.Y. Abdelaziz, and A.F. Zobaa, Egyptian grid code of wind farms and power quality In Handbook of Distributed Generation: Electric Power Technologies, Economics and Environmental Impacts, Springer Link, 2017, pp. 227-245.
Y.J. Liu, P.A. Chen, P.H. Lan, and Y.T. Chang, "Dynamic simulation and analysis of connecting a 5 MW wind turbine to the distribution system feeder that serves to a wind turbine testing site", In: IEEE 3rd International Future Energy Electronics Conference and ECCE Asia (IFEEC 2017 - ECCE Asia), Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2017, pp. 2031-2035.
A.A. Mas’ud, A. Wirba, J.A. Ardila-Rey, and R. Albarracín, "Wind power potentials in Cameroon and Nigeria: Lessons from South Africa", Energies, vol. 10, no. 4, 2017.
Y. Zhang, Z. Chen, W. Hu, and M. Cheng, "Flicker mitigation by individual pitch control of variable speed wind turbines with DFIG", IEEE Trans. Energ. Convers., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 20-28, 2014.
F. Díaz-González, A. Sumper, O. Gomis-Bellmunt, and R. Villafáfila-Robles, "A review of energy storage technologies for wind power applications", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 2154-2171, 2012.
S.T. Tentzerakis, and S.A. Papathanassiou, "An Investigation of the harmonic emissions of wind turbines", IEEE Trans. Energ. Convers., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 150-158, 2007.
S. Liang, Q. Hu, and W.J. Lee, "A survey of harmonic emissions of a commercially operated wind farm", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 1115-1123, 2012.
IEC 61400-21, Wind Turbines-Part 21: Measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid connected wind turbines, 2008.
T. Ackermann, and L. Söder, "Wind energy technology and current status: A review", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 315-374, 2000.
M.Q. Duong, F. Grimaccia, S. Leva, M. Mussetta, G. Sava, and S. Costinas, "“Performance analysis of grid-connected wind turbines,” UPB Sci. Bull. Ser. C", Electr. Eng., vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 169-180, 2014.
J. Hossain, and H.R. Pota, “Power system voltage stability and models of devices BT - robust control for grid voltage stability: High penetration of renewable energy: Interfacing conventional and renewable power generation resources,” J. Hossain and H.R. Pota, Eds. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2014, pp. 19-59.
M.H. Haque, "Evaluation of power flow solutions with fixed speed wind turbine generating systems", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 79, pp. 511-518, 2014.
A. Ahmed, and A.F. Zobaa, "Comparative power quality study of variable speed wind turbines", Int. J. Energy Convers., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 97-104, 2016.
J.M. Ha, H. Oh, J. Park, and B.D. Youn, "Classification of operating conditions of wind turbines for a class-wise condition monitoring strategy", Renew. Energy, vol. 103, pp. 594-605, 2017.
L. Ziegler, E. Gonzalez, T. Rubert, U. Smolka, and J.J. Melero, "Lifetime extension of onshore wind turbines: A review covering Germany, Spain, Denmark and the UK", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 82, pp. 1261-1271, 2018.
A.D. Hansen, and L.H. Hansen, "Wind turbine concept market penetration over 10 years (1995-2004)", Wind Energy, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 81-97, 2007.
M. Tazil, V. Kumar, R.C. Bansal, S. Kong, Z.Y. Dong, and W. Freitas, "Three-phase doubly fed induction generators: An overview", IET Electr. Power Appl., vol. 4, no. 2, p. 75, 2010.
S. Müller, M. Deicke, and R.W. De Doncker, "Doubly fed induction generator systems for wind turbines", Ind. Appl. Mag. IEEE, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 26-33, 2002.
F. Blaabjerg, "Future on power electronics for wind turbine systems", IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top. Power Electron., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 139-152, 2013.
H. Polinder, J.A. Ferreira, B.B. Jensen, A.B. Abrahamsen, K. Atallah, and R.A. McMahon, "Trends in wind turbine generator systems", IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top. Power Electron., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 174-185, 2013.
T. Bakka, and H.R. Karimi, "Bond graph modeling and simulation of wind turbine systems", J. Mech. Sci. Technol., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1843-1852, 2013.
M. De Prada Gil, A. Sumper, and O. Gomis-Bellmunt, Modeling and control of a pitch-controlled variable-speed wind turbine driven by a DFIG with frequency control support in PSS/E In: PEMWA 2012 - 2012 IEEE Power Electronics and Machines in Wind Applications, Denver, CO, USA, 2012.
T.P. Chang, S.P. Cheng, F.J. Liu, L.C. Sun, and Y.P. Chang, "Site matching study of pitch-controlled wind turbine generator", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 86, pp. 664-669, 2014.
G.S. Elbasuony, S.H.E. Abdel Aleem, A.M. Ibrahim, and A.M. Sharaf, "A unified index for power quality evaluation in distributed generation systems", Energy, vol. 149, pp. 607-622, 2018.
F.H. Gandoman, A.M. Sharaf, S.H.E.A. Aleem, and F. Jurado, "Distributed FACTS stabilization scheme for efficient utilization of distributed wind energy systems", Int. Trans. Electr Energ Syst.. Vol. 27, no. 11, p. e2391, 2017.
P.O. Ochieng, A.W. Manyonge, and A.O. Oduor, "Mathematical analysis of tip speed ratio of a wind turbine and its effects on power coefficient", Int. J. Math. Soft Comput., vol. 4, no. 1, p. 61, 2014.
P.M. Anderson, and A. Bose, "Stability simulation of wind turbine systems", IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus Syst, vol. PAS-102, no. 12, pp. 3791-3795, 1983.
P. Tchakoua, R. Wamkeue, M. Ouhrouche, F. Slaoui-Hasnaoui, A.T. Tameghe, and G. Ekemb, "Wind turbine condition monitoring: State-of-the-art review, new trends, and future challenges", Energies, vol. 7, no. 4, 2014.
S. Struggl, V. Berbyuk, and H. Johansson, "Review on wind turbines with focus on drive train system dynamics", Wind Energy, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 567-590, 2015.
A.F. Zobaa, and S.H.A. Aleem, Power Quality in Future Electrical Power Systems., IET Digital Library: UK, 2017.
S.H.E. Abdel Aleem, A.F. Zobaa, and M.M. Abdel Aziz, "Optimal C-type passive filter based on minimization of the voltage harmonic distortion for nonlinear loads", IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 281-289, 2012.
M.A. Saqib, and A.Z. Saleem, "Power-quality issues and the need for reactive-power compensation in the grid integration of wind power", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 43, pp. 51-64, 2015.
S.W. Mohod, and M.V. Aware, “Power quality and grid code issues in wind energy conversion system,” M. Aware and D. Lu, Eds. Rijeka: InTech Open, 2013.
H. Emanuel, M. Schellschmidt, S. Wachtel, and S. Adloff, "Power quality measurements of wind energy converters with full-scale converter according to IEC 61400-21", In: 10th International Conference on Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation Lodz, Poland, 2009, pp. 1-7.
V. Kumar, A.S. Pandey, and S.K. Sinha, "Grid integration and power quality issues of wind and solar energy system: A review", In: International Conference on Emerging Trends in Electrical Electronics & Sustainable Energy Systems (ICETEESES) Sultanpur, India, 2016, pp. 71-80.
Z. Chen, "Issues of connecting wind farms into power systems", In: Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Transmission and Distribution Conference Dalian, China, 2005, pp. 1-6.
M. Mroz, K. Chmielowiec, and Z. Hanzelka, "Voltage fluctuations in networks with distributed power sources", In Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), 2012 IEEE 15th International Conference on, 2012, pp. 920-925.
IEEE recommended practice for the analysis of fluctuating installations on power systems - Redline," In: IEEE Std 1453-2015 (Revision of IEEE Std 1453-2011) - Redline, USA, 2015, pp. 1-174.
IEEE recommended practices for modulating current in highbrightness LEDs for mitigating health risks to viewers," In: IEEE Std 1789-201, USA, 2015, pp.1-80,
X. Yang, and J. Gauthier, How can flicker level be determined before a customer is connected to the electric grid In: IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2009, pp. 1-6.
International Electrotechnical Commission, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-15: Testing and measurement techniques - Flickermeter - Functional and design specifications. IEC, 61000- 4-15, 2010.
A. Larsson, "Flicker emission of wind turbines during continuous operation", IEEE Trans. Energ. Convers., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 114-118, 2002.
M. Boutoubat, L. Mokrani, and M. Machmoum, "Control of a wind energy conversion system equipped by a DFIG for active power generation and power quality improvement", Renew. Energy, vol. 50, pp. 378-386, 2013.
E. Ghiani, F. Pilo, G.G. Soma, and G. Celi, "Power quality measurements performed on a large wind park at low and medium voltage level", IPST Int. Conf. Power Systems Transients Lyon, France June 4-7, 2007.
Y. Zhang, Z. Chen, W. Hu, and M. Cheng, "Flicker mitigation by individual pitch control of variable speed wind turbines with DFIG", IEEE Trans. Energ. Convers., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 20-28, 2014.
T. Sun, Z. Chen, and F. Blaabjerg, "Flicker study on variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators", IEEE Trans. Energ. Convers., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 896-905, 2005.
T. Thiringer, T. Petru, and S. Lundberg, "Flicker contribution from wind turbine installations", IEEE Trans. Energ. Convers., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 157-163, 2004.
S.H.E.A. Aleem, M.T. Elmathana, and A.F. Zobaa, "Different design approaches of shunt passive harmonic filters based on IEEE Std. 519-1992 and IEEE Std. 18-2002", Recent Pat. Electr. Electron. Eng., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 68-75, 2013.
S. Sakar, M.E. Balci, S.H.E. Abdel Aleem, and A.F. Zobaa, "Integration of large- scale PV plants in non-sinusoidal environments: Considerations on hosting capacity and harmonic distortion limits", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 82, pp. 176-186, 2018.
International Electrotechnical Commission, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 4-7: Testing and measurement techniques-general guide on harmonics and interharmonics measurements and instrumentation, for power supply systems and equipment connected thereto. IEC 61000-4-7, 2002.
International Electrotechnical Commission, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3-6: Limits- Assessment of Emission Limits for the Connection of Distorting Installations to MV, HV and EHV Power System. 61000-3-6, 2008.
IEEE Std 519-2014. Recommended Practice and Requirements for Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems. IEEE Std 519-2014 (Revision IEEE Std 519-1992), USA, pp. 1-29, 2014.
EN 50160, Voltage Characteristics of Electricity Supplied by Public Distribution Systems, 2008.
S.T. Tentzerakis, and S.A. Papathanassiou, "An investigation of the harmonic emissions of wind turbines", IEEE Trans. Energ. Convers., vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 150-158, March 2007.
C. Yıldız, Ö.F. Keçecioğlu, H. Açıkgöz, A. Gani, and M. Şekkeli, "Power quality measurement and evaluation of a wind farm connected to distribution grid", Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 195, pp. 2370-2375, 2015.
Ramos, A. Martins, and A. Carvalho, “Active filtering of DFIG stator and rotor current harmonics caused by distorted stator voltages,” EPE J. Europ. Power Electron. Driv. J., Vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 43-54, 2011.
S. Djurović, D.S. Vilchis-Rodriguez, and A.C. Smith, "Supply induced interharmonic effects in wound rotor and doubly-fed induction generators", IEEE Trans. Energ. Convers., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1397-1408, 2015.
C. Larose, and R. Gagnon, "P. Prud’Homme, M. Fecteau and M. Asmine, “Type-III wind power plant harmonic emissions: Field measurements and aggregation guidelines for adequate representation of harmonics", IEEE Transact. Sustain. Energy, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 797-804, 2013.
S.A. Papathanassiou, and M.P. Papadopoulos, "On the harmonics of the slip energy recovery drive", IEEE Power Eng. Rev., vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 55-57, 2001.
S. Djurović, and S. Williamson, "Influence of supply harmonic voltages on DFIG stator current and power spectrum", In: The XIX International Conference on Electrical Machines - ICEM 2010 Rome, Italy, 2010, pp. 1-6.
M. Kesraoui, A. Chaib, A. Meziane, and A. Boulezaz, "Using a DFIG based wind turbine for grid current harmonics filtering", Energy Convers. Manage., vol. 78, pp. 968-975, 2014.
C. Liu, F. Blaabjerg, W. Chen, and D. Xu, "Stator current harmonic control with resonant controller for doubly fed induction generator", IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 3207-3220, 2012.
D. Schulz, R. Hanitsch, T. Kompa, and A. Samour, Comparative power quality investigations of variable speed wind energy converters with doubly-fed induction and synchronous generator., PCIM Power Quality Conference Nuremberg, 2002, pp. 39-44.
S. Sakar, M.E. Balci, S.H.E.A. Aleem, and A.F. Zobaa, "Increasing PV hosting capacity in distorted distribution systems using passive harmonic filtering", Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 148, pp. 74-86, 2017.
P. Caramia, G. Carpinelli, and P. Verde, Power Quality Indices in Liberalized Markets., Wiley: United States, 2009.
M.S. Kurt, M.E. Balci, and S.H.E. Abdel Aleem, "Algorithm for estimating derating of induction motors supplied with under/over unbalanced voltages using response surface methodology", J. Eng., vol. 2017, no. 12, pp. 627-633, 2017.
IEC 60034-26:2006, Rotating electrical machines - Part 26: Effects of unbalanced voltages on the performance of three-phase cage induction motors, 2006.
J. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Liu, and J.S. Thorp, "Research on Short Circuit Current Characteristics of Doubly-fed Wind Power Generator Considering Converter Regulation", Electr. Power Compon. Syst., vol. 45, no. 19, pp. 2118-2130, Nov. 2017.
S. Papathanassiou, N. Hatziargyriou, P. Anagnostopoulos, L. Aleixo, and B. Buchholz Carter-Brown, "C. Capacity of distribution feeders for hosting DER", Working Group, vol. C6, p. 24, 2014.
Y. Shi, F.T. Li, and Y. Jiang, "A comparative analysis of the fault characteristic of D-PMSG and DFIG", Renew. Energy Resourc., vol. 30, pp. 53-58, 2012.
M.S. Nazir, Q. Wu, and M. Li, "Symmetrical short-circuit parameters comparison of DFIG-WT", Int. J. Electr. Comput. Eng. Syst., Vol. 8, no. 2, 2017.
A. El-Naggar, and I. Erlich, "Fault current contribution analysis of doubly Fed induction generator-based wind turbines", IEEE Trans. Energ. Convers., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 874-882, 2015.
E. Muljadi, N. Samaan, V. Gevorgian, J. Li, and S. Pasupulati, "Short circuit current contribution for different wind turbine generator types", 2010 Power Energy Soc. Gen. Meet., no. March, pp. 1- 8, 2010.
E. Muljadi, N. Samaan, V. Gevorgian, J. Li, and S. Pasupulati, "Different factors affecting short circuit behavior of a wind power plant", IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 284-292, 2013.
R. Li, Q. Gao, and W. Liu, "Characteristics of direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous wind power generator under symmetrical three-phase short-circuit fault", Power Syst. Technol., vol. 35, pp. 153-158, 2011.
L. Lin, N. Zhou, and J. Zhu, "Analysis of voltage stability in a practical power system with wind power", Electr. Power Compon. Syst., vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 753-766, 2010.
J.J. Gutierrez, Power quality in grid-connected wind turbines J. Ruiz and I. H. Al-Bahadly, Eds. Rijeka: InTech Open, 2011.
A. Mullane, G. Lightbody, and R. Yacamini, "Wind-turbine fault ride-through enhancement", IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1929-1937, 2005.
C. Bing, Y. Xiaodong, X. Yang, W. Xu, L. Qun, S. Rong, S. Jingxian, and Z. Jingbo, "Power quality measurement and comparison between two wind farms equipped with FSIG+PMSG and DFIG", In: International Conference on Power System Technology Hangzhou, China, 2010, pp. 1-7.
H. Nguyen, and M. Negnevitsky, "A review of fault ride through strategies for different wind turbine systems", In: UPEC 20th Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, 2010, pp. 1-5.
M. Rahimi, and M. Parniani, "Efficient control scheme of wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators for low voltage ride-through capability enhancement", IET Renew. Power Gener., vol. 4, pp. 242-252, 2010.
K.A. Lima, A. Luna, P. Rodriguez, E.H. Watanabe, and F. Blaabjerg, "Rotor voltage dynamics in the doubly Fed induction generator during grid faults", IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 118-130, 2010.
S. Wang, J. Hu, and X. Yuan, "Virtual synchronous control for grid-connected DFIG-based wind turbines", IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Top. Power Electron., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 932-944, 2015.
R.A. Ibrahim, M.S. Hamad, Y.G. Dessouky, and B.W. Williams, "A review on recent low voltage ride-through solutions for PMSG wind turbine", In: International Symposium on Power Electronics Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion Sorrento, Italy, 2012, pp. 265-270.
A. Dekhane, S. Lekhchine, T. Bahi, S. Ghoudelbourg, and H. Merabet, "DFIG modelling and control in a wind energy conversion system", In: First International Conference on Renewable Energies and Vehicular Technology Hammamet, Tunisia, 2012, pp. 287- 292.
X. Luo, J. Wang, J.D. Wojcik, J. Wang, D. Li, M. Draganescu, Y. Li, and S. Miao, "Review of voltage and frequency grid code specifications for electrical energy storage applications", Energies, vol. 11, no. 5, 2018.
B. Singh, and S.N. Singh, "Wind power interconnection into the power system: A review of grid code requirements", Electr. J., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 54-63, 2009.
M. Tsili, and S. Papathanassiou, "A review of grid code technical requirements for wind farms", IET Renew. Power Gener., vol. 3, no. 3, p. 308, 2009.
C. Wessels, F. Gebhardt, and F.W. Fuchs, "Fault ride-through of a dfig wind turbine using a dynamic voltage restorer during symmetrical and asymmetrical grid faults", IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 807-815, 2011.
S. Metatla, S. Mekhtoub, R. Ibtiouen, and A. Nesba, "Dynamic behavior of doubly fed induction generator during network voltage dips", In: International Conference on Electrical Sciences and Technologies in Maghreb (CISTEM) Tunis, Tunisia, 2014, pp. 1-6.
O.N. Netz, "Grid code; high and extra high voltage”, E-One Netz GmbH, Bayreuth, 2006. Available at: http://www.eon-netz.com [Accessed 13.05.18].
Ministro de la Industria Turismo y Commercio, resolucíon de 4 octobre de 2006 de la Secretería General de Energía, por la que se aprueba el procidimiento de operacíon 12.3. Requisito de respuesta frente la huecos de tensíon de las instalaciones éolicas. 2006 http://www.ree.es [Accessed 13.05.18].
Energinet, Wind turbine connected to grid below 110kV, English version of Technical Regulation TF 3.2.6. http://www.energinet.dk [Accessed 13.05.18].
Distribution System Operator ESB Networks. Distribution Code. version 2.0, 2007. Available at: http://www.esd.ie/electricalengg services.html [Accessed 13.05.18]
S. Mali, S. James, and I. Tank, "Improving low voltage ride-through capabilities for grid connected wind turbine generator", Energy Procedia. 2014, Vol. 54, pp. 530-540.
K.Z. Heetun, S.H.E. Abdel Aleem, A.F. Zobaa, S.H.E.A. Aleem, and A.F. Zobaa, "Voltage stability analysis of grid-connected wind farms with FACTS: Static and dynamic analysis", Energy Policy Res., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 2016.
A. Moghadasi, A. Sarwat, and J.M. Guerrero, "A comprehensive review of low-voltage-ride-through methods for fixed-speed wind power generators", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 55, pp. 823-839, 2016.
M.J. Hossain, H.R. Pota, and R.A. Ramos, "Improved low-voltage-ride-through capability of fixed-speed wind turbines using decentralised control of STATCOM with energy storage system", IET Gener. Transm. Distrib., vol. 6, no. 8, p. 719, 2012.
M.R. Abedi, and K.Y. Lee, Modeling, operation and control of wind turbine with direct drive PMSG connected to power grid In: IEEE PES General Meeting | Conference & Exposition, National Harbor, MD, USA, 2014, pp. 1-5.
Y. Wang, J. Meng, X. Zhang, and L. Xu, "Control of PMSG-based wind turbines for system inertial response and power oscillation damping", IEEE Transact. Sustain. Energy, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 565-574, 2015.
W. Sharad, and V. Mohan, “Power quality and grid code issues in wind energy conversion system”, In: An Update on Power Quality. In Tech Open, 2013.
W. Hu, Y. Zhang, Z. Chen, and Y. Hu, "Flicker mitigation by speed control of permanent magnet synchronous generator variable-speed wind turbines", Energies, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 3807-3821, 2013.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2019
Page: [210 - 222]
Pages: 13
DOI: 10.2174/2352096511666180608115140
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 22