Pp. 190-207 (18)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis. OA is the
destruction of articular cartilage, subchondral bone, ligaments, joint capsules and
periarticular tissues, sensory nerve endings, menisci leading to damage of the joint,
limitation of motion and pain. Obesity, occupational trauma and muscle weakness are
important biomechanical risk factors. Cartilage breakdown products increase synovial
OA mainly affects the elderly. Prevalence of osteoarthritis: 80% of patients over 55
years of age have radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. OA is the result of active
biochemical, biomechanical and cellular processes.
OA is characterized by damage of the articular cartilage, osteophyte formation at the
joint margins, subchondral bone sclerosis, and synovial and joint capsule thickening.
These changes lead to joint degeneration and symptoms such as pain, tenderness,
stiffness, loss of function and disability.
OA develops mainly in the cervical and lumbar spine joints, hips, knees, first MTP,
Risk factors of osteoarthritis are age, major joint trauma, repetitive stress and joint
overload, obesity, congenital/development defects, prior inflammatory joint disease,
metabolic changes and endocrine changes.
Obesity is the main modifiable risk factor for OA.
Pain or stiffness in and around one or more joints is the most common symptoms of
Radiological changes are narrowing of the joint space, subchondral bone sclerosis,
bone cysts, osteophytes.
Treatment OA include patient education, reduction of pain, optimization of treatment
and modification of the degenerative process. First we use non-pharmacological
methods, next topical capsaicin and topical NSAIDs, than acetaminophen, oral
NSAIDs and finally arthroplasty.
Acetaminophen, Arthroplasty, Articular cartilage, Bone cysts,
Cervical spine, DIP, Disability, First MTP, Hips, Joint capsules, Knees,
Ligaments, Limitation of motion, Loss of function, Lumbar spine joints, Menisci, Narrowing of the joint space, Obesity, Occupational trauma, Oral NSAIDs, Osteoarthritis
(OA), Osteophyte, Pain, Pain, Periarticular tissues, PIP, Sensory nerve endings, Stiffness,
Subchondral bone, Subchondral bone sclerosis, Subchondral bone sclerosis, Synovial
inflammation, Tenderness, Topical capsaicin, Topical NSAIDs.
Head of Rheumatology and Internal Diseases Department CSK MSWiA Warsaw Poland.