Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), still remains a deadly disease worldwide. With prolonged usage of anti-TB drugs, the current therapeutic regimes are becoming ineffective, particularly due to emergence of drug resistance in MTB. Under such compelling circumstances, it is pertinent to look for new drug targets. The cell wall envelope of MTB is composed of unique lipids that are frequently targeted for anti-TB therapy. This is evident from the fact that most of the commonly used front line drugs (Isoniazid and Ethambutol) act on lipid machinery of MTB. Thus, despite the fact that much of the attention is towards understanding the MTB lipid biology, in search for identification of new drug targets, our knowledge of bacterial cell wall non-lipid components remains rudimentary and underappreciated. Better understanding of such components of mycobacterial cell structure will help in the identification of new drug targets that can be utilized on the persistent mycobacterium. This review at a common platform summarizes some of the non-lipid cell wall components in MTB that have potential to be exploited as future drug targets.