Use of Monoclonal Antibodies to Prevent the Sexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

Author(s): Deborah J. Anderson*, Joseph A. Politch, Gabriela B. Vaca, Kadryn Kadasia, Kevin J. Whaley.

Journal Name: Current Immunology Reviews

Volume 15 , Issue 1 , 2019

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Passive immunization has been used since the late 1800’s to prevent and treat human infectious diseases. Administration of animal immune sera and human immunoglobulin has given way to the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for passive immunization, and highly potent broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (bNAbs) are now being considered for HIV therapy and prophylaxis. Recent studies have shown that systemic and topical administration of bNAbs can effectively inhibit HIV/SHIV mucosal transmission in macaques and in humanized mice, and selected bNAbs are currently being tested in clinical trials for safety and efficacy in humans.

In this review, we outline strategies for the selection, engineering and manufacture of human bNAbs to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV, describe the proof-of-concept animal studies that have demonstrated mAb-mediated protection against mucosal HIV transmission, and review clinical trials currently underway to test the safety and efficacy of mAb-based HIV prevention in humans.

Keywords: HIV, passive immunization, broadly neutralizing antibodies, monoclonal antibodies, sexual transmission, HIV.

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Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/1573395514666180605091240
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