Objective: The incredibly serious problem of Hepatitis B is virus-related chronic liver disease.
The conventional preventive treatment of Hepatitis B requires booster dose, which requires repeated
administration of the vaccine to the subject. Thus, there is a need to develop a formulation which
can eliminate the need of frequent dosing and enhance patient’s acquiescence. To prepare single dose
nanovaccine of HBsAg by utilizing central composite design for optimization and interaction of independent
variables effects on measured response.
Methods: Nanovaccines were characterized for particle size, morphology, integrity, internalization,
proliferation response and haemocompatibility. Nanoparticles at single and multiple doses were compared
with booster dose of alum-HBsAg vaccine and measure the immunological marker and cytokine
(interleukin-2 and interferon-Y) levels by ELISA techniques in BALB/c mice.
Results: The designed nanoparticles were found to have nanometric size, high entrapment efficiency
and retained antigen integrity. Nanoparticles showed maximum proliferation and efficiently internalized
by lymph and spleen cell without eliciting significant toxicity and haemocampatible.
Conclusion: The comparable data of anti-HBsAg titre between nanovaccine and alum adsorbed HBsAg
demonstrated that single dose of nanoparticles is sufficient for production of immunoglobulin plus cytokine
levels, maintain immunogenicity at longer period of time and eliminate the booster dose. Nanovaccines
trigger immune responses and showing adjuvant properties.