Promising Alternative Therapeutics for Oral Candidiasis

Author(s): Célia F. Rodrigues , Maria E. Rodrigues , Mariana C.R. Henriques* .

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 14 , 2019

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Abstract:

Candida is the main human fungal pathogen causing infections (candidiasis), mostly in the elderly and immunocompromised hosts. Even though Candida spp. is a member of the oral microbiota in symbiosis, in some circumstances, it can cause microbial imbalance leading to dysbiosis, resulting in oral diseases. Alternative therapies are urgently needed to treat oral candidiasis (usually associated to biofilms), as several antifungal drugs’ activity has been compromised. This has occurred especially due to an increasing occurrence of drugresistant in Candida spp. strains. The overuse of antifungal medications, systemic toxicity, cross-reactivity with other drugs and a presently low number of drug molecules with antifungal activity, have contributed to important clinical limitations.

We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases (PubMed Central, Elsevier’s ScienceDirect, SCOPUS and Springer’s SpringerLink) for peer-reviewed research literature using a focused review in the areas of alternatives to manage oral candidiasis. The keywords used were “candidiasis”, “oral candidiasis”, “biofilm + candida”, “alternative treatment”, “combination therapy + candida” and the reports from the last 10 to 15 years were considered for this review.

This review identified several promising new approaches in the treatment of oral candidiasis: combination anti-Candida therapies, denture cleansers, mouth rinses as alternatives for disrupting candidal biofilms, natural compounds (e.g. honey, probiotics, plant extracts and essential oils) and photodynamic therapy.

The findings of this review confirm the importance and the urgency of the development of efficacious therapies for oral candidal infections.

Keywords: Candida, oral candidiasis, resistance, antifungal treatment, plants, honey, probiotics, photodynamic therapy.

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