Increased incidences of Candida infection have augmented morbidity and mortality in human
population, particularly among severely immunocompromised patients and those having a long stay in
hospitals (nosocomial infections). Many virulence factors and fitness attributes are reported to be associated
with the pathogenicity of Candida sp. It can cause infections ranging from easily treatable superficial
type to life-threatening invasive infections. Additionally, it has the capability to infect humans of all
age groups. Indeed, overutilization of broad-spectrum antibiotics has further complicated the scenario by
leading the emergence of less sensitive Candida strains especially non-albicans. Despite our developed
armamentarium, the diagnosis and treatment of human fungal infections remain a challenge.
This review focuses on the prevalence of Candida spp. as human pathogens with emerging resistance to
existing anti-fungal drugs. Furthermore, factors and mechanisms contributing to the pathogenicity of
Candida spp. and the challenges being faced in combating the devastating infections associated with
these pathogens have been discussed. Moreover, pros and cons of the current and future anti-mycotic
drugs have been analyzed.
Keywords: Candidemia, Candida pathogenicity, Virulence factors, Antifungal drugs, Antifungal drug resistance, Anti-mycotic
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