Contribution of Spinal Cord Oligodendrocytes to Neuroinflammatory Diseases and Pain

Author(s): Sergio M. Borghi, Victor Fattori, Miriam S.N. Hohmann, Waldiceu A. Verri*.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 26 , Issue 31 , 2019

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Abstract:

Background: Neuroinflammatory diseases that affect spinal cord or associated spinal nerves represent challenging conditions for management in current medicine because of their complex pathology, poor prognosis, and high morbidity, which strikingly reduces the quality of life of patients. In this sense, a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of spinal cord neuroinflammation might contribute to the development of novel therapies. Oligodendrocytes have unique and vital biological properties in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis and physiology. A growing body of experimental evidence demonstrates that these glial cells are involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying many chronic, neurodegenerative, and incapacitating CNS disorders. These cells also have important implications for the development and maintenance of neural plasticity and chronic pain states. On the other hand, evidence indicates that oligodendrocytes and their products may act in favor of CNS promoting beneficial effects orchestrating CNS tissue repair after injury.

Objective: The present review aims to explore the multi-faceted actions of spinal cord oligodendrocyte progenitors cells (OPCs) and mature oligodendrocytes in CNS inflammation and pathology, addressing their roles in experimental and clinical settings. A major focus was given to spinal cord amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis (MS)/experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), traumatic injury and pain processing.

Methods: This review analyses and discusses published original research articles regarding the role of OPCs/oligodendrocytes in spinal cord inflammation and pain processing.

Results and Conclusion: Findings from a number of clinical and experimental paradigms suggest spinal cord OPCs/oligodendrocytes are a potential therapeutic target for the control of neuroinflammation.

Keywords: OPCs, oligodendrocytes, myelin, spinal cord, neuroinflammation, central sensitization.

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VOLUME: 26
ISSUE: 31
Year: 2019
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DOI: 10.2174/0929867325666180522112441
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