Introduction: Bisphenol A (BPA) is suspected to cause hormonal imbalance in humans.
Dietary factors are known to bring changes in hormonal profile. In order to study chemico-biological
interaction of iron deficiency on toxicity outcome of BPA exposure, we studied the modulatory effects
of iron deficiency on the hormone levels in rats chronically-exposed to BPA.
Methods: Weanling rats maintained on normal and iron-deficient diets were exposed to low level of
BPA at 0, 1, 5 and 10 ppm for six months through drinking water. The serum levels of thyroidstimulating
hormone (TSH), testosterone, progesterone and estradiol were measured in the animals by
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Histopathology was performed to check the pathological
changes in gonads.
Results: No significant change was observed in TSH, progesterone and estradiol levels at 1 and 5 ppm
BPA. However, at 10 ppm BPA a significant increase in TSH level was observed in the animals maintained
on an iron-deficient diet of either sex. BPA caused a significant change in testosterone level
even at 5 and 10 ppm doses in animals of either sex. However, in male rats 1 ppm dose also showed a
significant effect in the animals maintained on iron deficient diet. Changes in the histoarchitecture of
the testes at high dose of BPA (10 ppm) were more remarkable in anemic rats.
Conclusion: These results suggest that iron deficiency has no generalized effect on hormonal levels in
BPA-treated animals and trends indicate a more remarkable effect in male animals at hormonal and